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The pediculosis (pediculosis) is an illness which is widespread worldwide. Louses parasitize on a human body, eating its blood. There are several kinds of louses. They live on pilar part of the head of the person, can live on linen and articles of clothing, and also to live in area of a pubis. In rare instances louses also meet on other parts of a body where hair – on a beard, eyebrows grow. As experience of specialists testifies, on a body of the person rather limited quantity of louses depending on amount of its blood can live. The main nutrients for louses is blood and a lymph. Louses bite through skin and inject saliva into the formed wound. Saliva of louses can contain different microbes activators of dangerous infectious illnesses. So, fever, typhus and other diseases in such a way can be transmitted. After stings of louses of people feels a severe itch, combs skin on site of stings. Louses move, creeping.
The pediculosis is transferred by direct contact with the infected person or after use of sanitary products of the patient. Also louses can creep from one head on another in places where people stay in rather close contact: in public transport, in the pool, on the beach. In spite of the fact that there is an opinion on a pediculosis as about a social illness which is very closely connected with hygiene till today the reason of a wide circulation of louses among clean people remains not investigated. So, scientists established that louses more willingly "lodge" on the head with clean hair.
Louses head are insects of grayish-yellow color or transparent, their size reaches 4 mm. Head louses always parasitizes mainly on temples and on a nape, and already from there they get also on other sites of the head. For a month of a louse can postpone in day on ten nits (eggs of louses so are called). On the expiration of 8-10 days from a nit larvae of louses appear. In ten-fifteen days the adult louse capable to fully lay eggs grows from a larva. The louse can live till 38 days. Nits of head louses are white balls which louses attach at the basis of hair. As a rule, identification of nits demonstrates existence at a sick pediculosis. Eggs of a louse attach so that during washing of the head they cannot be removed. It is also very heavy to remove them from a hair. At infection with head louses of the patient strongly combs skin that leads by the beginning of inflammatory process and, as a result, to manifestation of consecutive infection.
The clothes pediculosis is a pediculosis of a trunk. A louse, getting on a body of the person, sucks blood, punching skin. However she lives in linen and in clothes. In the same place the clothes louse postpones nits. The most often clothes louses parasitize on human skin on a neck, a waist, between shovels. After louses iskusyvat skin, on this place rather long period remains pigmentation of light brown color. But the main threat which is posed by louses of this look for people is their ability to transfer a sapropyra.
The pubic pediculosis is infection of the person with a pubic louse who is called a crab-louse. She lives in hair which are located on a pubis, generative organs, around an anus. Also the parasite meets in stomach hair and on other places. The louse lays eggs on the basis of hair. The louse with the help a hobotka is attached to a hair follicle, as a rule, on skin of a scrotum and pubis. It is the simplest to catch a similar disease sexually. Also pubic the pediculosis can be transmitted through bed linen. Owing to stings of louses rather strong feeling of an itch appears. Respectively, the person strongly combs these places on which bluish spots appear later. They are shown because of effect of saliva of crab-louses on hemoglobin of the person. Also on linen of the infected person there can be small spots on linen – allocations of parasites quite so look. If the person too strongly combs places of stings, then infection and, as a result, emergence of small abscesses is possible. From time of infection with parasites to manifestation of symptoms the incubation interval can make till 30 days and more.
Diagnosis of a pediculosis
Generally the pediculosis at children and at adults comes to light during planned routine inspections. During careful survey of the patient it is possible to see louses without additional optical devices. Louses are much more noticeable after they got drunk human blood. If there is a suspicion on a pubic pediculosis, then it is necessary to look for louses who look as brown points with a grayish shade. It are located at the roots of hair. In a quiet condition of a louse are completely not mobile, but if to try to tear off an insect, then they begin to cling to a hair actively. It is very difficult to tear off them. At diagnosis of a pediculosis most often first of all pay attention on a nit which louses attach to hair.
Complications of a pediculosis
The most serious complication of a pediculosis can be those diseases which transfer louses. These are very dangerous infectious diseases – a sapropyra, a typhinia, the Volynsk fever.
Treatment of a pediculosis
Effective treatment of a pediculosis first of all means simultaneous extermination of parasites, both in hair, and on a body, in linen, clothes, sanitary products. If the pubic pediculosis is diagnosed for the person, then in parallel it is necessary to treat all sexual partners for the purpose of the prevention of further distribution of a disease. There is a number of special solutions which are used as means from a pediculosis. For example, against louses drugs a nittifor, pedilin and others effectively work. Them it is necessary to process carefully all affected areas and later the certain time specified in the instruction of drug, to wash away solution hot water with soap use. It is possible to rinse hair water with addition of a small amount of acetic acid. Also it is necessary to moisten with solution of acetic acid a crest which is used for comb-out of nits.
One more often used method of treatment of a pediculosis – processing of hair the kerosene mixed with vegetable oil in a proportion one to one. After processing of hair such solution it is necessary to apply them a bandage with waxen paper. It is necessary to hold it about 12-15 hours. The head after such procedure should be washed carefully hot water with soap. After washing of a nit are removed the comb moistened with vinegar.
As means from a pediculosis also benzyl benzoate suspension is used. The pediculosis at adults is treated with use of 20% of suspension, a pediculosis at children — 10%. Means should be applied on hair and it is good to rub in skin. In thirty minutes suspension is washed away, hair wash shampoo.
To cure a trunk pediculosis, it is necessary to remove first of all louses in linen, a bed. For this purpose all objects need to be boiled and pressed carefully on both sides. The person infected with this disease should wash with soap use carefully.
Pubic pediculosis treat most often with use of special aerosols, following the rules spraying. Before that it is necessary to shave all indumentum on an affected area and to burn sbrityevolosa. All clothes of the patient need to be disinsectated. In the course of therapy of a pubic pediculosis mercury ointment or an emulsion of a benlilbenzoat is often used.
Prevention of a pediculosis
The most important rule which is especially important for prevention of a pediculosis observance of standards of personal hygiene, regular washing of the head and body with use of the corresponding detergents, continuous change of clothes, linen is considered. If the person has a suspicion on presence of louses, it is necessary to address the specialist who will appoint a course of treatment and will prompt what measures should be undertaken immediately. Very important in case of existence of a pediculosis at the person carefully to examine all family members to prevent distribution of parasites. For the purpose of prevention it is necessary to perform constantly inspection of a hair of the children staying in children's collectives as today louses very often extend in places of big accumulation of children.
Section: Dermatology (Skin diseases)