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Dandruff is a syndrome at which at the person too high speed of peeling of particles of integuments during a long span is noted. Parts of skin otslonyatsya cheshuychato, and it, as a rule, occurs on head integuments which plentifully cover hair.
Parts of the keratosic cells of superficial skin which very easily exfoliate and are noticeable with the naked eye, and are dandruff. The form and color of such parts can be very different. Scales happen layered, leaflike, scaly, and their shade can be silvery, white, yellowish.
In medicine emergence of dandruff is considered a seborrhea symptom — an illness which develops at the person as an effect too intensive or, on the contrary, very slow formation of skin fat. Besides, there is a change of chemical composition of skin fat.
The reasons of emergence of dandruff in the person consist, first of all, in dysfunction of a sebaceous gland. In turn, disturbance of exchange processes, the wrong functioning of a digestive tract, dysfunction of pancreatic and thyroid glands leads to it. Sometimes dandruff on the head develops as a result of infection with a fungus. Besides, can lead a complex of the listed above reasons to dysfunction of sebaceous glands. One more factor leading to emergence of dandruff in men and women is a genetic favor to this phenomenon. In this case it is about certain features of skin of the person, and also about secretion processes.
Release of skin fat, and also its quality directly depends on the general state of health of the person, his age and other factors. Seborrhea is more expressed at failures in work of nervous, endocrine systems, at problems with a digestive tract, and also at people with the expressed hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis (shortage of vitamins of group B especially influences a condition of skin). In that case the person except dandruff in the head can have also a dandruff in ears, and also the hair loss is observed. Negative impact on process of a producing skin fat is made by chronic infectious diseases, improper feeding (the daily use in food sweet and fat), and also non-compliance with hygiene. Especially large amount of skin fat is allocated at the person at teenage age. Leads a hormonal imbalance which is observed during puberty to disorders of functioning of sebaceous glands.
Later, when the person becomes more senior, the producing skin fat considerably decreases. But at those who have seborrhea, changes in structure of a grease secret are noted: in it the amount of free fatty acids increases.
Types of seborrhea
In medicine fat and dry seborrhea is defined. In turn, the fat form of seborrhea is subdivided on dense and liquid. It is most expressed seborrhea it provalyatsya in those places where there is a large number of sebaceous glands. It is pilar part of the head, a face, a back, a breast.
At manifestation of a dense form of fat seborrhea at the person elasticity of integuments decreases, but skin becomes more dense. Mouths of sebaceous glands considerably extend, skin at the same time has brownish-gray color. Often there is an obstruction of an output canal of a sebaceous gland to which the died-off skin cells get. It leads to emergence in the person of comedones (black eels). In hard cases at the patient furuncles and other pustulous diseases of skin can be formed.
At a liquid form of fat seborrhea enlarged pores, the shining skin as a result of active release of skin fat are observed. Head hair very quickly become fat, they are covered by yellowish scales of skin. These parts stick around hair owing to what the person suffers from an itch. Baldness can sometimes be shown. As complications furuncles can also develop. Also hair follicles, on site which abscesses are formed are surprised. Later, after disappearance of this phenomenon, there can be nevus pigmentosus.
At dry seborrhea skin of the patient seems very dry though on itself business there is an active production of skin fat. Nevertheless, it very viscous is also allocated from sebaceous glands hard. As a result, skin on a surface will iron very dry, she is sensitive and is easily irritated. On hair and head skin dandruff is noticeable, at the same time the person feels an itch. In certain cases there is a stratification of dandruff that leads to emergence of the crust having a grayish or yellowish shade. Skin can be shelled both by all pilar part of the head, and on an occipitoparietal zone. At the patient with this type of seborrhea the state of disrepair of hair is, as a rule, noted very much: they are very thin and dry, prostrate fragilities.
Very often at dry seborrhea the human body overcomes a microscopic fungus. Its influence becomes more active only in case of influence of some accessory factors. It can be an overstrain, reduced immunity, the period after the delivery. At such moments the fungus provokes more intensive display of seborrhea. In that case immediate treatment of dandruff that the situation did not become complicated even more is required
At the mixed seborrhea at the patient dry and fat dandruff is observed. Besides, on a nose and a chin there can be very fat skin, and on cheeks, on the contrary, very dry. This form is shown both at teenagers, and at children, and treatment in house conditions often does not bring desirable result. The matter is that national treatment of dandruff often assumes disposal directly of this manifestation, but not from its reasons. Therefore initial consultation at the doctor is necessary for the optimum help. Besides seborrhea of pilar part of the head can be complicated by a seborrheal alopecia (baldness) if in time not to carry out the correct treatment of this illness. If initially hair drop out moderately, then later process is aggravated. Sometimes this process in several years stops independently, however at part of patients the hair loss does not stop, and on their place very fine, vellus hair grows. If at women at such illness hair thin in frontal area, then at men the hair loss is observed in parietofrontal area.
At seborrheal dermatitis not only the strong peeling of skin, but also its inflammatory process is observed. The skin itch is noted, most often the inflammation strikes zaushny sinks, skin folds, area of a neck, eyebrows. At seborrheal dermatitis at the patient, as a rule, very dry and fine hair.
Treatment of dandruff
Thinking seriously of how to get rid of dandruff, the person, of course, aims to make it quickly and forever to forget about a problem. However it is necessary to realize, first of all, the fact that houses, using only superficial means, owing to treatment it is possible not only not to gain due effect, but also to do much harm to health in general, having started an illness.
Both the man, and the woman suffering from this unpleasant disease should not address at once with prize-winning "help" to folk healers who can tell about how to get rid in house conditions of dandruff. First of all, it is necessary to visit the trichologist who will initially conduct necessary researches to define what reason of development of seborrhea takes place at the patient.
Considering the fact that dandruff develops owing to the broken work of a sebaceous gland, the doctor appoints such scheme of therapy which allows to reduce formation of skin fat. Thus, treatment shall be "intradermal". In turn, shampoo from dandruff only washes away from hair and a surface of integuments of the head a grease secret. For this reason, using only anti-dandruff shampoo, the patient will hardly manage to achieve the necessary result. Even if the patient chooses the best shampoo, all the same its influence has to be shown in a complex by assistance of any means. So, doctors advise medical shampoo to apply together with seboreguliruyushchy masks and lotions. Such means it is necessary to hold about half an hour on the head.
It is important that a mask from dandruff or any other means used with the same purpose comprised at least 2-3 components from the following list. It ketokonazol, Bifonazol, salicylic acid, tar. Dandruff on the head and in other places disappears only after long, systematic use of such means.
Why dandruff does not disappear, those patients who did not take care of the balanced food often wonder. Meanwhile, it is necessary to eat as little as possible fat and sweet, to enter in daily a diet vitamin products, cellulose, fermented milk products. Doctors recommend to dry the head under open air and not to use for this purpose the hair dryer.
Treatment by folk remedies
In parallel with the treatment appointed by the doctor also folk remedies from dandruff can practice. As a rule, house means from this unpleasant phenomenon include collecting medicinal herbs and other natural components. Therefore the checked effective remedy from dandruff not only will allow to accelerate process of disposal of displays of seborrhea, but also will strengthen hair, will improve their state. Herbs for preparation of such means can both be bought in a drugstore, and to collect and dry up independently.
However, treatment of dandruff folk remedies assumes also use of some medicamentous drugs. For example, washing of the head shampoo to which tube two pounded tablets of ordinary aspirin were added previously helps to overcome dandruff. Such shampoo needs to be held on hair within two minutes then it is carefully washed away.
The mask from fresh eggs will help to prevent formation of dandruff on the head. They need to be broken and parted with a small amount of water. This mix is held on hair by about 20 minutes.
Effective remedy — burdock root broth. For its preparation 250 g of a root fill in with one and a half liters of water and on slow fire prepare broth several hours. After broth was cooled, it is filtered and used for wetting of head skin. It needs to be done every day. Broth is washed away without soap and shampoos, clear water.
It is also possible to prepare a mask from onions and honey. For this purpose juice of one bulb, two yolks and one tablespoon of honey undertakes. It is possible to add 2 teaspoons of vegetable oil to mix. Everything carefully mixes up. It is necessary to hold such mask on the head about one hour. But it is necessary to consider that moment that the smell after onions remains very unpleasant therefore it is better to carry out such procedure at the weekend.
It is also recommended to wash the head, adding 6% apple cider vinegar, and inside every day to accept 1 tablespoon of linseed oil.
The mask from medicinal herbs is prepared on a spirit basis. It is initially necessary to take 3 tablespoons of a St. John's Wort, nettles, a yarrow, coltsfoot and to fill in all herbs of 300 g of boiled water. After eight-hour insisting to filter and fill in the received mix of 200 g of vodka. After repeated eight-hour insisting the mask is daily applied on the head for half an hour. It is necessary to wash away it warm water.
In head skin it is also possible to rub castor or burdock oil which is mixed with spirit Tinctura Calendulae. When washing it is possible to rinse hair broth of a camomile, a thyme. It is several times a week recommended to wash the head with tansy infusion (1 tablespoon of powder on 400 ml of water).
Besides, it is recommended to happen as much as possible in the fresh air, to observe the drinking mode — to drink not less than 2 l of water a day. During washing of the head at dandruff it is desirable to do massage. Finger-tips not exchange of 5 minutes needs to mass head skin vigorously. Such mini-massage not only will improve a blood stream, but also will promote more active penetration of useful substances from medicinal herbs in roots of hair.
Prevention of dandruff
To avoid emergence of dandruff or to improve a state at an initial stage of an illness it is recommended to avoid painting of hair and a chemical wave. It is possible to use vegetable dyes (for example, henna) which well affect a condition of hair and head skin. All hairbrushes and cheeks need to be washed as often as possible.
One more important point — healthy nutrition: restriction in a diet of salt, animal fats, spicy food, carbohydrates, alcohol.
It is periodically necessary to accept vitamin complexes, to practice active lifestyle and a healthy, full-fledged sleep. Besides, the correct selection of shampoo is important. If got used to wash the head of people every day or every other day, then special shampoos are necessary for daily use which make the sparing impact on head skin.
Section: Trichology (Diseases of hair)