And whether you know...
First symptoms of pneumonia
June 2, 2016
Development of pneumonia in children and adults has the infectious nature and happens owing to influence of a number of factors, both physical, and chemical. In development of this disease inflammatory process in pulmonary fabric is noted.
At pneumonia alveoluses, and also intersticial tissue of a lung generally are surprised.
The name "pneumonia" integrates extensive group of diseases, each of which is characterized by a certain clinical picture, an etiology, signs, laboratory indicators and features of the scheme of treatment.
The question of in what pneumonia differs from pneumonia, is not actual as both of these names define a similar illness.
Defining the concept "pneumonia", it is necessary to select the term "pneumonitis". What is it? This name defines the diseases connected with noninfectious inflammatory processes in tissues of lungs. Against such processes pneumonia of a bacterial, virus and bacterial or fungal origin, as a rule, develops.
In article we will consider initial symptoms of pneumonia at children and at adult patients, and also basic reasons of development of this disease, methods of treatment, prevention of complications.
Origins of a disease are connected with influence of a number of factors. Specialists define the following reasons of pneumonia:
- complications after viral diseases (a consequence of the postponed flu, colds of lungs or a SARS);
- influence of atypical bacteria (activators — a mycoplasma, chlamydias, a legionella);
- influence of various chemical compounds on respiratory system of the person (gases and toxic fumes);
- radiation radiation effect with the joined infection;
- manifestation in lungs of allergic processes (asthma bronchial, HOBL, allergic cough);
- thermal influence (burns or overcooling of respiratory tracts);
- inhalation of food, liquid or foreign bodys (aspiration pneumonia develops).
Wikipedia demonstrates that development of pneumonia is connected with existence of favorable conditions for active reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms in the lower respiratory tracts of the person. What is pneumonia of lungs, people knew still in ancient times. The original causative agent of pneumonia is the mushroom of an aspergill owing to which influence the specialists investigating the Egyptian pyramids suddenly died.
The division of pneumonia on two subspecies is accepted:
- extra hospital pneumonia – develops as a result of influence of a number of agents of an infectious and noninfectious origin out of a hospital situation;
- hospital pneumonia – develops owing to influence of intrahospital microbes which often are steady against the antibiotics which are present at the traditional scheme of treatment.
At community-acquired pneumonia at patients the following frequency of detection of different activators of an infectious origin is noted (information is submitted in the table).
|Name of the activator||Percent of detection of the activator (average values, %)|
|Streptococcus (most often the death from pneumonia is noted at the illness caused by this activator)||30,4|
|Mycoplasma (most often causes an illness in children and people of young age)||12,6|
|Chlamydias (most often causes pneumonia in people at young and middle age)||12,6|
|Legionella (generally strikes the weakened people, after a streptococcus most often the illness caused by this activator comes to the end with a lethal outcome)||4,7|
|Hemophilic stick (provokes development of pneumonia in people with chronic illnesses of lungs and bronchial tubes, at malicious smokers)||4,4|
|Enterobakteriya (seldom strike people with serious illnesses – diabetes, a renal, liver failure)||3,1|
|Staphylococcus (strikes elderly people, those at whom complications after flu are noted)||0,5|
If pneumonia is diagnosed for the patient as to treat it, define depending on the activator, the accompanying diseases, age of the patient, etc. At a heavy current, how the disease develops, the corresponding treatment is appointed and out in the conditions of a hospital. The easy course of an illness does not assume hospitalization.
Symptoms at pneumonia of lungs
Symptoms of pneumonia are most often similar to symptoms of flu or cold. How symptoms at the patient are shown, depends on a pneumonia origin.
At bacterial pneumonia both acute, and gradual development of symptoms is possible. Aspen signs in this case are: a shiver, fever, the strengthened sweating, frequent pulse and breath, an acute pain in a breast, and also cough at which the dense, red or greenish phlegm is allocated.
At the pneumonia developing owing to action of a mycoplasma, symptoms are similar to signs of both virus, and bacterial type of an illness, but are, as a rule, less expressed.
First symptoms of pneumonia
Timely to see a doctor and to diagnose a disease, it is necessary to know what first symptoms of pneumonia at children, at teenagers and at adults can be shown. As a rule, first symptoms of pneumonia of lungs following:
- temperature increase;
- display of short wind and cough;
- fever, fever;
- weakness, fatigue;
- stethalgia in attempt to sigh deeply;
However very often the first symptoms of pneumonia at adults, and also symptoms of an illness at the child can not be shown is so expressed – often viral diseases proceed asymptomatically.
Symptoms of pneumonia at the adult
As pneumonia is shown at adults, depends on type of the activator, weight of an illness, etc. Characteristic symptoms of pneumonia at adults, acute development of process, its extensiveness and probability of manifestation of complications at the wrong therapy – are more main than the reason of the immediate address of patients to specialists. The doctor defines in each case what symptoms of pneumonia at adults: without temperature or with a temperature there takes place process, etc. The appointed treatment depends on results of research.
Pneumonia symptoms at the adult are shown in the first days of an illness. The first symptoms of this illness depend on its activator.
Cough is the main symptom of pneumonia. As a rule, at first cough at inflammatory processes in lungs persuasive, dry, is shown constantly. However sometimes in more exceptional cases, in the first days of an illness cough happens poorly expressed, rare. Further, in development of an illness, cough becomes more wet, at the same time there is an allocation of the purulent mucous phlegm having chartreuse color. Cough, and also cold can be shown in the first days of an illness and proceed several days.
One more symptom of an illness which is shown at first — fervescence. At the very beginning of pneumonia it can already be very high and reach 39-40 degrees. So radical pneumonia and other types of pneumonia develops. However temperature (in case of atypical pneumonia) can keep on subfebrile indicators — 37,1-37,5 degrees. But even at such temperature if at the patient weakness is noted, an indisposition, cough, the patient needs to address the specialist. Also serious symptom is repeated rise in temperature in the course of course of an illness. One more symptom of pneumonia – lack of efficiency of febrifugal drugs.
It is necessary to consider also what symptoms at adults without temperature can be noted in the first days of development of pneumonia.
If large volumes of lungs are affected, a constant asthma, and also feeling can disturb the patient that to it does not gasp. At a deep breath of people feels pain, the similar state is also noted during cough. The lung cannot hurt as in it there are no pain receptors. However the pleura is involved in pathological process, as leads to manifestation of a pain syndrome.
In the first days of an illness at the person pallor of skin is expressed. Also some other symptoms – sharp deterioration in appetite, weakness, strong fatigue, active sweating, a fever is noted.
It is necessary to consider that any disease of a virus origin should not disturb longer, than 7 days. If one week later after the beginning of flu or cold the condition of the patient worsened, it is the evidence of development of an inflammation of the lower respiratory tracts.
Symptoms of pneumonia at the child
It is important to parents to know what symptoms at pneumonia at the child have to guard them as at children symptoms of pneumonia can have certain features. As pneumonia at children is shown, depends on features of an illness and on age of the child. Children's pneumonia can develop if at the child to be noted certain symptoms:
The increased body temperature
It is possible to suspect inflammatory process if temperature increase (more than 38 degrees) continues longer than three days, at the same time it is not possible to bring down her usual drugs. Also temperature which is not rising higher than 37,5 degrees at small children has to disturb. Especially, if at the same time also a number of symptoms of intoxication – the high level of perspiration, weakness, a small appetite is noted. At the newborn, and also at babies, it can not be noted sharp jumps of body temperature in the course of manifestation of inflammations as thermal control at them is not absolutely perfect yet, and the immune system remains unripe so far.
Features of breath
Sick children have a breath very frequent, superficial. Babies till 2 months a minute take 60 breaths a minute children till 1 year – 50, those who already were 1 year old – 40. As a rule, at an inflammation, the kid randomly tries to lie on one side. Also one more sign can be noted: having undressed the kid, parents can notice that in the course of breath from that party where a sore lung, there is a retraction of skin between edges and its lag during breath. Sometimes at the kid the respiratory rhythm is broken, there are its periodic stops, changes also depth is frequent. The most small children can begin to nod in a breath step, to blow out cheeks, to extend lips. Sometimes from a nose and a company foamy allocations appear.
Behavior of the kid
The most small children who got sick with pneumonia cry and are capricious, become sluggish. They sleep badly, do not wish to eat. Vomiting and diarrhea is often noted, babies belch, refuse to take a breast.
At the child can develop not only streptococcal, but also atypical pneumonia. What symptoms at the same time can be shown, depends on the activator, features of course. As a rule, at the illness provoked by chlamydias and a mycoplasma, initially the illness develops as cold. The kid is disturbed by dry cough, irritation in a throat, cold. It is initially possible to be shown a tussiculation owing to irritation, later cough outgrows in painful when the child cries or eats.
It is important to consider that in the presence of a number of factors (impurity of air, effect of allergens or chemicals) at the kid chronic pneumonia which symptoms are shown periodically can develop.
The first symptoms of tuberculosis at adults
The clinic of tuberculosis is very similar to a clinical picture of pneumonia. However the first symptoms of tuberculosis at adults are sometimes poorly expressed, they accrue gradually. The following first symptoms of tuberculosis at children and adults are noted:
- cough at which the phlegm is allocated, proceeding more than three weeks;
- small, but long temperature increase;
- loss of appetite, weight reduction;
- strong fatigue, irritability.
At manifestation even of several of these symptoms it is necessary to pass immediately researches and to define the diagnosis.
Pneumonia at adults, diagnosis
In case of untimely detection of a disease of an effect at the adults who got sick with pneumonia can be very serious. In particular, the long pneumonia provoking serious complications can develop. Also destructive form of a disease with purulent processes of pulmonary fabric is probable. Therefore timely diagnosis is very important.
The clinic of a disease includes the main syndromes and symptoms characteristic of inflammatory processes. Therefore the careful assessment of the symptoms which are shown at the patient will help to diagnose an illness. The doctor considers all signs of how pneumonia is shown, trying to note features of such manifestations.
Temperature at pneumonia
The doctor interrogates and defines what temperature at adult patients and also what temperature at children. At pneumonia both the adult, and at the child has temperature, as a rule, high and keeps for several days. However the doctor considers also a possibility of atypical disease, that is whether the inflammatory disease can proceed without temperature. Whether there is temperature, depends on age of the patient and features of inflammatory process. For example, at babies subfebrile temperature can sometimes be noted.
What cough is shown
The doctor interrogates the patient to define how many days this symptom what cough at the child or at the adult patient takes place is shown whether thorax pains are felt. At the same time it is considered that also pneumonia without cough is possible. If the illness proceeds without cough, the doctor focuses attention on other symptoms, in poll considering everything about disease.
For confirmation of a disease the general and biochemical analysis of blood is carried out. The general laboratory research at an inflammation shows a number of changes: a leukocytosis, the raised SOE, a neutrocytosis. At a virus form the doctor considers that such pneumonia causes increase in quantity of leukocytes at the expense of lymphocytes.
The thorax X-ray is carried out, sometimes diseases of lungs at children and adults decide on the help of a computer tomography.
Also in the conditions of a hospital microscopic examination, the analysis of urine and crops of a phlegm (at pneumonia the phlegm of flavovirent color is allocated) practices.
In the first days of an illness the doctor can listen to small-bubbling rattles. Lungs at an inflammation are listened by a stethoscope. However, if suspicions at the child or at the adult on pneumonia appear, it is important to conduct all complex of researches to provide timely treatment and accurately know what to do at this illness.
Treatment of pneumonia
The specialist has to appoint treatment of pneumonia surely. If the patient timely sees a doctor, then treatment of pneumonia at the adult and at the child is successful. How to treat and than to treat this disease, depends also on the activator which provoked an illness. For successful treatment it is necessary to know accurately how pneumonia begins and how to distinguish it.
The doctor appoints any drugs after carrying out researches, including laboratory (leukocytes, SOE, etc.).
The scheme of therapy, treatment duration, need of the room of the patient in a hospital is defined only after carrying out diagnosis by the specialist. As a rule, treatment of an illness continues 7-10 days. Duration of treatment of bilateral pneumonia of lungs at the adult is determined only by the doctor.
Those who is interested whether die of pneumonia should know that the greatest number of lethal cases occurs at treatment of this kind of an illness in house conditions, without consultation with the doctor. It is necessary to hospitalize without fail children till 1 year and elderly patients as what to do at pneumonia in such cases, the specialist can define only. In such cases there can sometimes be a need of an intensive care, artificial ventilation of the lungs.
Antibiotics at pneumonia
At pneumonia it is reasonable to apply antibiotics at adults after the illness was confirmed at least with one diagnostic method.
At the same time it is necessary to consider that separate symptoms – for example, hurried breathing at the child at a temperature, cough at a deep breath at the adult, etc. – are not a reason for immediate reception of antibacterial drugs as the patient could get sick also with other illness. To define independently whether the patient has four signs or 5 signs of an inflammation, it is impossible. For purpose of an adequate antibioticotherapia it is necessary to address the doctor immediately.
Before prescription of antibiotics it is important to define a disease-producing factor – under such condition therapy will be the most adequate. But in some cases it is not possible therefore specialists appoint antibacterial HP of a broad spectrum of activity. They are also applied before definition of the activator to create therapeutic concentration of active components in blood.
The pneumonia provoked by a streptococcus (it the streptococcus in a throat can cause in the child, etc.), is treated by means of penicillin of a wide range of influence, sometimes appoint Vancomycinum in combination with aminoglycosides.
Bronchial pneumonia is treated by means of antibiotics — semi-synthetic penicillin, treatment of bronchial pneumonia at adults can be carried out in house conditions.
At a pulmonary inflammation the complex from 2-3 drugs antibiotics, especially is sometimes applied if the center of an inflammation occupies more than one segment.
Complications of pneumonia
If patients address specialists right after get sick, and after that adhere to the appointed scheme of treatment, complications, as a rule, do not develop. Manifestation of complications can be connected directly with an illness, and also with drug intake. Also the probability of an exacerbation of chronic diseases – heart failure, emphysema, etc. increases.
As complication the pleuropneumonia of which involvement in inflammatory process of one is characteristic can develop or at once several shares of lungs, at the same time also the severe disease is noted acute.
Display of pleurisy (pleura inflammation) which can develop into exudative pleurisy when in a pleural cavity liquid collects is probable.
One more dangerous complication – abscess of lungs when the cavities filled with pus develop in them. This complication develops at people with chronic diseases.
Besides, pneumonia can be complicated by blood sepsis, bacteremia.
There is a risk of development of an infectious endocarditis, trouble breathing.
Sometimes after the postponed pneumonia the first symptoms of asthma at teenagers and children develop.
Prevention of complications of pneumonia
As measures of prevention it is recommended to pass vaccination against flu annually. It is especially actual for the people belonging to risk groups (the children, elderly people sick with heavy illnesses).
It is very important to pass timely diagnosis and to adhere to the scheme of treatment appointed by the specialist at flu, cold, long cough.
It is necessary to follow the well-known rules of hygiene and a healthy lifestyle.