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First month of pregnancy
Conception and pregnancy – the difficult physiological processes happening in the woman's organism.
As it is difficult to define exact date of conception, among obstetricians it is accepted to reckon pregnancy from the first day of the last periods, duration makes it 280 days or 40 weeks. First month of pregnancy, one of the most important. What occurs in an organism at this time?
During each menstrual cycle 20 or a little more ova ripen, on the second week among them "leader" — one or several ova which are in a special bubble which call graafovy acting over an ovary surface is defined. By 14th day of a cycle the bubble is broken off, and the ovum leaves an ovary. This period is called an ovulation. If there is an ovum meeting with a spermatozoon – fertilization — there comes pregnancy. At this moment in a cover of an ovum chemical process which does not allow other spermatozoa to get inside begins. The spermatozoon which is in an ovum begins, resolves, its kernel integrates with an ovum kernel, as a result of it there is genetic information of the father and mother.
On site the graafova of a bubble appears the small sack with liquid called by a yellow body in which blood vessels for production of various hormones, first of all progesterone begin to develop. These hormones are necessary for preservation and maintenance of pregnancy at an initial stage. Early toxicoses as signs of pregnancy connect with functioning of a yellow body. Supervision show that by 16th week when functions of a yellow body are undertaken by a placenta, early toxicoses usually pass.
After merge of an ovum to a spermatozoon the one-celled germ – a zygote is formed. Which begins to share strenuously. In 30 hours the cell was divided on 2, and in 10 their hours already 4, by a weekend the number of cells reaches 250. The germ form reminds a ball at this time, and the germ is called blastotsistoys 0,1-0,2 mm in size.
By 7th day the formed cellular weight is divided into 2 parts: germinal a small knot and surrounding it, a blanket. Having reached a uterus, the germ is attached to a wall from which he will receive food and oxygen now.
By 14th day formative cells are split on two layers again, and by the end the third between them is formed weeks the third layer. These layers are called germinal petals, from them, afterwards, certain fabrics and bodies begin to develop.
In the same time the chord is put, from it the child's backbone will develop further. For 17-19 day of pregnancy in a germ from the center blood vessels form, and in three days there is heart which has the tube form in the beginning. Heart is already reduced by the 23rd day and at the same time begins to form finally, its form, cavities, valves, endocardiac partitions forms.
There is forming of arterial and venous system of vessels. Muscles, bones, generative organs and kidneys are formed of the same layer. From an inside layer digestive and respiratory systems, from outside — an integument and nerves form.
On the 4th week of pregnancy very important extraembryonic bodies — chorion and amnion of which bodies, important for life support of an embryo, – a placenta and an amniotic bubble in which the child should live till the birth are formed then form.
By the end of the first month of pregnancy there is a full implantation, i.e. implementation of fetal egg in a uterus wall. By this time the neck of uterus bulks up and is corked, preventing hit of any infection. The uterus reaches the egg sizes. From now on and till 10th week the germ is called an embryo. Its food already completely depends on mother. The embryo head is created. By this moment the child has the size about 0,5-1 mm.
Test and diagnosis of pregnancy
In the 1st or 2nd day of a delay of periods in house conditions it is possible to make a strip test on pregnancy. It with an accuracy of 99,8% will define pregnancy. Diagnosis of pregnancy of all house tests is made on urine, presence at hCG hormone urine — a human gonadotrophin of chorion is defined. The test is very simple, attentively read the instruction, in capacity with urine for some time (it is specified on packaging) lower a test strip to noted level, then for several minutes lay out on a dry surface and wait for result. If two strips red – pregnancy is confirmed.
Often indirect signs of early pregnancy are shown by small increase and hardening of chest glands, emergence in them small pain, emergence of nausea or vomitings, change in weight in the mornings. There can be supersensitivity to some smells, an irritability, tearfulness, drowsiness.
Indications of a house rapid test need to be checked as soon as possible in the laboratory way in clinic for women. Also, it is necessary to visit the gynecologist if the test did not show pregnancy, and the periods did not appear. In medical institution blood test, urine, ultrasonography is appointed. All analyses in the direction of the doctor in clinics for women are carried out free of charge.
After early pregnancy was confirmed, it is necessary to be registered pregnant women at the gynecologist in clinic for women, paid policlinic or the Center planning of a family. The doctor will fill an individual card in which will specify all necessary information:
- Data of medical character – the undergone operations and serious diseases, chronic diseases used for the period of conception medicines, existence of allergic reactions.
- Gynecologic and obstetric data: time of approach of the first monthly, duration of a menstrual cycle, its regularity, existence character of a course of last pregnancies, existence and number of abortions.
- Family anamnesis: existence of genetic and chronic diseases at parents and close relatives.
- Social information about the pregnant woman: age, profession, existence of addictions (smoking of cigarettes, use of alcoholic beverages), gymnastic activity, diet, etc.
To provide more correct supervision, so and more successful course of pregnancy, it is necessary to trust the doctor and to report to it all required data.
Further, for establishment of duration of gestation pregnancy diagnosis is carried out, the gynecologist will estimate a uterus and a neck of uterus, and then will appoint additional medical examinations which need to be passed. Treat them:
- measurement of arterial pressure. It is made in each visit to the doctor;
- inspection of heart, thorax, abdominal cavity, fluorography;
- inspection of external genitals, vaginas and necks of uterus, bodies of a small pelvis,
- assessment of the sizes of a bone basin;
- measurement of growth and body weight;
- to pass survey of legs for detection of tumors and other educations;
- survey at the stomatologist.
Besides, without fail it is necessary to conduct the following laboratory examinations:
- general blood test and urine;
- blood test for blood typing and a Rhesus factor;
- blood test on TORCH complex (immunity to a rubella);
- genetic tests;
- cytologic smears for detection of diseases of a neck of uterus (especially cancer);
- test for existence of a diabetes mellitus;
- analyses on detection of various dangerous infections: syphilis, HIV infection,
- hepatitis, clamidiosis, gonorrhea.
Individually the doctor can appoint additional inspections.
Signs of pregnancy of the first month
Usually on the first month the woman not always knows that she is pregnant and disturbs nothing her, but it is necessary to know that in rare instances there can be problems.
On the first month of pregnancy there can be a depression, but most often for a depression take the banal differences of mood of pregnant women caused by change of a hormonal background. There is a depression at pregnancy at emotional and unstable natures and is expressed in feeling sick, disturbance of appetite and a dream. It is necessary to watch a diet, to limit or stop the use of sugar, coffee, chocolate; an optimum combination of time of rest and wakefulness to adjust a positive emotional background in a family.
Sometimes in the morning there are such signs of pregnancy as nausea or vomiting. In certain cases they can be considered as complications as they do harm to mother's organism. It can be caused by the following reasons:
- uterus muscle strain;
- high level of hCG hormone in blood;
- bad digestion and (or) weakening of muscles of a gullet;
- increase of acidity in a stomach;
- physical and psychological fatigue.
For easing of nausea it is necessary to pass, after consultation with the doctor, to a diet, protein-rich and carbohydrates which promote improvement of digestion in the conditions of pregnancy. To use more liquid in the form of juice, soups, broths, there are more vegetables and fresh fruit, especially melons, a citrus, salads. It is obligatory to enter vitamins of group B into a diet. To eat food in the small portions.
Without overloading a stomach, but also without having feelings of hunger for which nausea is possible. It is obligatory to observe a day regimen. To maintain purity in an oral cavity.
Quite frequent phenomenon during the first month of pregnancy – the increased hypersalivation. Then completely disappears. Rinsing of a mouth broth of mint or mint water helps. At the strengthened hypersalivation when symptoms of dehydration of an organism appear, drug treatment, physical therapy, psychotherapy is applied. In hard cases hospitalization is possible.
The frequent urination also a sign of early pregnancy can arise because of increase in pressure of the increasing uterus at a bladder. At a frequent urination it is recommended to bend in the course of emptying forward, it helps liberation of a bladder. If night desires very much disturb, it is necessary to limit reception of liquid after 16 hours.
Growth of amount of hormones of estrogen and progesterone which is produced by the woman's organism during pregnancy, causes change of chest glands. They nagrubat, become sensitive, emergence of pain is possible. The rim around a nipple becomes more and darkens, there is a venous grid, the breast strongly increases in the amount of. The pregnant woman needs to realize is natural signs of pregnancy and an indicator that the organism started preparation of chest glands of the woman for feeding of the child.
Emergence of negative reaction to a stress can follow from differences of mood of the woman as well as the depression at pregnant women a stress can be shown by sleeplessness, appetite loss, a depression. Ways of fight against stresses consist in emotional calm, samotrenninga, observance of a day regimen and diet.
Pathologies and complications of pregnancy of the first month
The extrauterine pregnancy is pathology when fetal egg begins to develop out of a uterus in one of sites of a uterine tube, is more rare – in an abdominal cavity, a neck of uterus or an ovary. In such cases the embryo implanted out of a uterine cavity has no conditions for the growth and development and necessary means of food therefore such pregnancy is interrupted to 6-8 weeks. At the same time uterine tubes are damaged or broken off that can threaten the pregnant woman's life.
The extrauterine pregnancy can arise at the women accepting during the long period of means for stimulation of an ovulation and improvement of fertility. There are also other factors promoting emergence of an extrauterine pregnancy:
- numerous abortion during the previous periods;
- inflammatory processes in a small basin and emergence of commissures;
- surgical sterilization (bandaging of pipes);
- previous extrauterine pregnancies;
- emergence of hems after the performed band operations and ovary operations.
The first that has to guard the pregnant woman, is the acute pricking pain in the field of a basin or an abdominal cavity. Other symptoms of an extrauterine pregnancy:
- vulval bleeding, some days before an acute pain can arise small bleeding or bloody allocations;
- dizziness, weakness, pressure drop, weakening of pulse, sometimes faints;
- desires to an excrement.
The extrauterine pregnancy – very serious gynecologic disease, life-threatening, it demands the emergency medical intervention. At emergence of one or several signs, the urgent call of an ambulance crew is necessary.
The abortion – rather frequent complication, according to the statistics comes to an end with it to 25% of all pregnancies, that is every fourth early pregnancy. Often abortions happen still before the woman learned about the pregnancy.
The abortions occurring in the first trimester till 12 weeks, are called early. Symptoms of an abortion are various and if in time to notice them and to ask for medical care, pregnancy can be kept. Most important and dangerous of symptoms – bleeding and pain in a bottom of a stomach and a waist. At their emergence it is necessary to call the ambulance immediately.
Also it is necessary to pay close attention to unpleasant feelings in a stomach, spasms, emergence of pain. Complication of pregnancy can be avoided, but for this purpose it is necessary to know well factors which can lead to it:
- disturbances of hormonal balance. Excess of male sex hormones or a lack of progesterone can become the reason of abortions. Influence forming and development of pregnancy, and hormones of adrenal glands and a thyroid gland. Timely detection of this problem and reception of hormonal drugs help to keep pregnancy;
- genetic disorders at a fruit can also lead to an abortion. Usually these disturbances have no hereditary character, and are caused as a result of the single mutations which occurred in sex cells of parents under the influence of adverse environmental factors: viral diseases, harmful working conditions, radiation, etc. In such cases an abortion — a peculiar result of natural selection, attempt of an organism to get rid of impractical posterity;
- reasons of immunological character, such as Rhesus factor conflict. If mother has a negative Rhesus factor, and the fruit inherits a positive, maternal organism from the father perceives it as alien body and tears away. Administration of drugs of progesterone which has immunomodulatory effect helps with such cases;
- can lead infections to an abortion, sexually transmitted: clamidiosis, syphilis, trichomoniasis, toxoplasmosis, herpes and others. Pathogenic viruses and bacteria infect a fruit, affect fetal membranes, as leads to an abortion. For an exception of such situation reasonably beforehand, before pregnancy to conduct examination and treatment of infections;
- previous abortions. Abortion is the stress for an organism causing dysfunction of adrenal glands and ovaries, failure in their work;
- the inflammatory and infectious diseases which are followed by high temperature and intoxication of an organism: flu, quinsy, a viral hepatitis, a rubella, pneumonia and other diseases which need to be revealed and treated before pregnancy;
- stresses, long mental an overstrain, a strong fright, an unexpected grief can promote an abortion. It is necessary to discuss problems with the doctor and to make the decision on possible reception of admissible sedative drugs;
- unhealthy way of life of the pregnant woman, use of alcoholic beverages, smoking, improper or defective feeding, excessive use of coffee. It is necessary to correct way of life;
- influence of strong medicines and herbs which can cause forming of defects in a fruit and abortion. In the first trimester, and especially in the first month of pregnancy, it is desirable to refuse their reception. Even such "harmless" plants as parsley, a centaurea, a St. John's Wort, a nettle and others can constitute danger;
- the weight raising, sexual intercourse, falling can also become the abortion reason.
Pregnancy complications are also shown by a cyst of a yellow body – the education forming on site a yellow body. Most often, such education takes place independently by 18-20 weeks, but sometimes there is a rupture of a cyst that causes the necessity of an operative measure. After removal of a cyst, pregnancy continues to proceed safely.
Doctor's advice to women on the first month of pregnancy
Pregnancy – not an illness, and natural physiological process. If to meet certain conditions and to listen to recommendations of doctors, it proceeds safely and comes to an end with the birth of the healthy child. For this purpose it is necessary to follow simple rules:
- correctly organize the day regimen. Night rest should not be less than 8-9 hours. If felt fatigue among day, have a rest and relax. Try to sleep longer and be not overstrained. Allow the relatives to show care of you;
- reconsider once again the diet. Enter into it more fresh vegetables and fruit, vitamin-rich and mineral substances. Do not abuse strong tea, coffee, candies, sugar and other sweets. Balance a diet, in it there shall be a necessary amount of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Use only fresh and high-quality products;
- try not to limit the movement. Walking, jogging, simple physical exercises, daily charging and walks help to improve health;
- pay attention to the Wednesday surrounding you and protect yourself from adverse factors. Excessive noise at work or at home, bad lighting, the contaminated air can be the cause of feeling sick;
- try to create for yourself a pleasant emotional background. It can do life reading the interesting book, listening of favourite music, communication with people pleasant to you.
- if you suddenly felt badly or found some sign dangerous to your health and menacing to pregnancy, immediately cause medical care. Before its arrival it is necessary to lay down and to move less. Report to the doctor in detail about the health.