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Medical foods at cardiovascular diseases
For a long time scientists proved existence of direct dependence meanwhile than and as the person and his diseases eats. Nutritionists developed 15 dietary tables on the basis of which the individual diet, depending on a disease is selected. Cardiovascular diseases win first place on rates of mortality. Such diseases as coronary heart disease, heart diseases, arterial hypertension, strokes, a myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, and also a varicosity it is necessary to treat continuously and in a complex. The healthy nutrition promotes strengthening of efficiency of medicines, and also can prolong life of patients. Besides, the healthy nutrition is prevention of heart diseases and vessels, especially with risk factors. Heredity, smoking, irrational food, excessive alcohol intake, age (after 40 flyings), the high arterial pressure, a diabetes mellitus, obesity, stresses and slow-moving way of life belong to risk factors of development of diseases of cardiovascular system.
The dietotherapy at cardiovascular diseases is directed to correction of disbolism, unloading of cordial activity, and also strengthening of the effect of drugs. At purpose of medical foods the stage and the course of a disease, a condition of digestion, and also existence of associated diseases is considered.
The basic principle of a diet at such diseases is fractional food with frequent meal, restriction in a diet of liquid and sodium salts, at simultaneous enrichment of a diet vitamins and salts of potassium.
Diet No. 10 as the main diet at cardiovascular diseases
At purpose of a dietotherapy of cardiovascular diseases, diets No. 10, 10a, 10s, 10i are used. In difficult cases it can be applied also specialized diets, such as potassium, hyposodium, fruit and vegetable and others.
At diseases of cardiovascular system, at atherosclerosis, rheumatism, heart diseases, an idiopathic hypertensia, and also after the postponed myocardial infarction the diet No. 10 is appointed. This diet promotes the fastest recovery of the broken blood circulation, improves a metabolism, and also favors to fast removal from an organism of products of an exchange and stimulation of activity of kidneys and a liver.
The diet is characterized by restriction of consumption of table salt (to 5 mg), rough cellulose and liquid (to 1,5 l) and increase in reception of products, calcigerous. It is dried apricots, dates, prunes, grapes, bananas, baked potatoes, broccoli, a citrus and cabbage. And also the products containing magnesium salts buckwheat, porridge, bran, nuts. A main aim which is pursued by a diet No. 10 is reduction of load of heart at digestion.
The principles of food at observance of a diet No. 10:
- food has to be the most various;
- restriction of products which are a cellulose source;
- increase in a diet of the products contributing to normalization of a lipometabolism;
- increase in the products containing alkaline connections (milk, cabbage, carrots, apples, lemons);
- increase in contents of vitamins (groups A, B, PP, E, Retinolum, ascorbic acid), micro and macrocells in a diet (potassium, calcium, phosphorus);
- frequent meals of 5-6 times a day in the small portions.
The diet No. 10 is full, hyposodium, however the content of nutrients in it is reduced, as well as the substances exciting a nervous system (strong coffee, tea, broths) the general caloric content — to 2800 kcal. The food is boiled, baked or steamed.
What can be eaten at diseases of vessels and hearts
At cardiovascular diseases nutritionists recommend to use the following products:
- white bread, with bran, slightly dried, crackers from white and gray loaf, lean biscuits;
- vegetable, milk and large potatoes soups without salt, beetroot soup (on a half of a portion — 250 g);
- low-fat grades of meat (rabbit, veal, low-fat beef), birds (chicken, turkey), fishes (pike perch, carp, cod, bream). Meat and fish dishes are used in the boiled or baked look, in the form of aspic from boiled meat;
- vegetable and butter — in the form of additives in already ready dishes, butter — no more than 10 g a day;
- the boiled, baked and crude vegetables, grain prepared on water and milk and pasta as a garnish;
- as snack it is possible to cook fresh vegetables salads, vinaigrettes, seafood salads with addition of vegetable oil;
- potatoes and cabbage — it is limited;
- from dairy products kefir, curdled milk, cottage cheese, acidophilus milk is recommended; sour cream and cream — in dishes;
- no more than 1-2 eggs a day as additions to main courses or in the form of a steam omelet;
- any crude and baked fruit, berries, also dried fruits, dried apricots, prunes, raisin;
- from drinks — rather weak coffee with milk, black and green tea, juice from fruit and berries, jelly, kissels.
What cannot be eaten, according to a diet No. 10
At diseases of cardiovascular system it is necessary to limit as much as possible the use in food of table salt and liquid (to 5 glasses a day), and also animal fats. The dietotherapy at cardiovascular diseases does not recommend to use in a diet meat and mushroom soups, broths, fried meat and fish, caviar, a fat pickles, bean. The products containing a lot of cholesterol — a liver, brains, kidneys, and also any spicy and greasy food, smoked products, sausages, mushrooms, fancy bread, chocolate, cakes, spices, hot spices are also excluded from a diet. From vegetables it is not recommended to use onions, garlic, a sorrel and a garden radish. From drinks it is impossible to drink strong coffee, cocoa, tea, carbonated drinks.
The approximate menu per day, according to a diet No. 10
Breakfast (the 8th morning) — cottage cheese with sour cream, semolina or rice porridge on milk, bread with butter, tea with milk.
Lunch (13 hours) — the vegetable ground soup, steam meatballs in white sauce, friable rice porridge, baked apples or pearl-barley vegetables soup, boiled meat with carrot puree, tea.
Afternoon snack (16 hours) — an omelet and apple carrot puree, dogrose infusion.
Dinner (19 hours) — cottage cheese casserole from buckwheat, vegetable cutlets with prunes, kissel or a cottage cheese pudding, potatoes with boiled fish, kissel.
Supper (22 hours) — a glass of curdled milk or fruit juice, a biscuit.
Other diets at cardiovascular diseases
The diet No. 10a is appointed at cardiovascular diseases with the expressed circulatory disturbances. The general caloric content of a diet — to 2000 kcal, is reduced consumption of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, liquids and celluloses. Table salt is excluded completely. The menu consists of lenten soups, meat and fish steam dishes steamed, the wiped vegetables, curdled milk and low-fat cottage cheese. Salty, fried and fat dishes, smoked products, mushrooms are completely excluded from a diet.
The dosed food by skim milk with gradual increase in its quantity is the basis for food at Karell's diet (to 2 l a day). However because of inferiority of a diet, changes are made to this diet later.
The scientist M. I. Pevzner offered a fruit and vegetable diet, for the persons with an idiopathic hypertensia having excess body weight. This diet possesses the lowered energy value, restriction of consumption of sodium, liquid, at the increased potassium consumption. Any vegetables, fruit, and dishes from them — vinaigrettes, salads, mashed potatoes, juice, compotes are recommended.
At insufficient blood circulation, an idiopathic hypertensia and hypostases the potassium diet in which energy value of a diet gradually increases is applied, sodium consumption, salt is sharply limited — excluded. The diet is enriched with potassium. Food is eaten 6 times a day, the same products, as in a diet No. 10 are excluded from a diet, and are recommended, in addition to a diet No. 10, also the products rich with potassium — dried fruits, apples, bananas, cabbage, a dogrose, potatoes.
Rice kompotnaya a diet (Kempnera) – one of kinds of a potassium diet. Its feature is sharp decrease the content of proteins and fats in a diet, and also sodium. As a part of this diet – the rice porridge cooked without salt, and compote. Rice porridge – 2 times a day, compote – 6 glasses a day. Because of inferiority, it is possible to use this diet not longer than 3-4 days.
At insufficient blood circulation, against atherosclerosis and an idiopathic hypertensia, Yarotsky's diet is appointed. In its structure – fresh low-fat cottage cheese and sour cream. It renders the expressed diuretic effect, and also lipotropic influence.
The magnesian diet promotes lowering of arterial pressure, contents of cholesterol in blood, to increase of a mocheotdeleniye, and has antiinflammatory effect. It is based on a diet No. 10 diet with increase in contents in it in the products rich with magnesium. Generally it is grain oat, millet, buckwheat and vegetables, greens, haricot, nuts.
At symptomatic arterial hypertension and an idiopathic hypertensia, with atherosclerosis of vessels, the hyposodium diet which promotes improvement of activity of kidneys, lowering of arterial pressure and excitability of the central nervous system is applied. In a hyposodium diet the amount of the refined carbohydrates is reduced, the content of salt and liquid is limited, and the amount of vitamins and cellular covers is increased. Vegetable and vegeratiansky soups, vegetables in a boiled and baked look, low-fat meat and fish, grain and pasta, dairy products, fruit are resolved.
Also at diseases of vessels and hearts it is possible to carry out 1-2 times a week fasting days. For example, it can be an apple fasting day when in day 1,5 kg of baked and crude apples are consumed, cucumber (in day – 1,5 kg of fresh cucumbers without salt) or salad when in day of 5 times about 300 g of salad from vegetables or fruit, without salt, with sour cream or vegetable oil are accepted.
Feeding habits at different types of cardiovascular diseases
Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease which affects arteries. Various zhiropodobny substances (cholesterol) get into walls of arteries that leads to formation of an atherosclerotic plaque which, gradually increasing, narrows an artery gleam, complicating blood circulation. Developments of a disease promote the increased cholesterol level in blood owing to improper feeding, smoking, an idiopathic hypertensia. Usually atherosclerosis develops at young age, and is not shown in any way. Gradually vessels lose the elasticity, plaques promote narrowing of their gleams therefore fabrics and bodies do not receive nutrients and oxygen in enough. Thereof there can be complications — a stroke, a myocardial infarction and others. Unfortunately, the disease is very widespread, and the first heart attack terminates in death in every third case.
For prevention of development of atherosclerosis it is necessary to eat properly, having reduced consumption of the products rich with cholesterol, and also animal fats, alcohol. Observance of a diet at cardiovascular diseases allows to detain a course of a disease, having normalized cholesterol level in blood. Thanks to a diet your vessels will be "pure" and healthy longer.
If you have atherosclerosis, your food has to be various. Instead of meat choose a bird, fish and bean. Portions of low-fat meat and a bird should not exceed 100 gr. in finished form. It is necessary to exclude from a smoked product diet, fat, sausages, sausages, chips, hamburgers. When cooking use any vegetable oils (to 2 spoons a day). Limit the use of a liver, brains, and also confectionery, ice cream. Cook food in the boiled and baked look, on couple. It is possible to add some salt during food.
At atherosclerosis it is recommended:
- porridges and bread from coarse flour;
- dairy products with the low content of fat — 1% kefir, cottage cheese, unsweetened yogurt;
- vegetables and fruit — not less than 400 g a day, are possible in salads with addition of vegetable oil;
- seafood rich with iodine;
- dried fruits, walnuts, almonds;
- from drinks green tea, compotes, natural juice is recommended.
Coronary heart disease — the disease caused by decrease in blood supply of a cardiac muscle. This disease includes a myocardial infarction, stenocardia, heart failure. Atherosclerosis is a basic reason of a disease. A diet at coronary heart disease it is directed to prevention of developing of atherosclerosis. If the disease is followed by an asthma and emergence of hypostases, then almost completely exclude salt from a diet, and consumption of liquid is limited to 800 ml a day.
At patients with a myocardial infarction when there is a necrosis of a site of a muscular grid of heart which happens because of blood circulation disturbance, medical foods promote recovery of functions of heart. Also healthy nutrition prevents development of complications, such as disturbances of a rhythm and increase in a dead site of a muscle of heart. The diet is directed to stabilization of work of intestines, normalization of a metabolism and the prevention of formation of blood clots. After a disease attack, appetite at patients is reduced, and the attending physician appoints food, depending on a condition of the patient. Salt is excluded from a diet, liquid consumption is limited, the food is distributed on 8 receptions. Everything the food is appointed in a boiled, warm and liquid look. When the condition of the patient improves, to it observance of a diet No. 10 is appointed, Yarotsky's diet can be also attributed.
The main symptom of arterial hypertension is increase arterial pressure. Is very widespread disease, more than 50% of people have it 65 years are more senior. The patient with arterial hypertension appoints a diet No. 10 with restriction of the use of salt, liquid (to 1,1 l a day), the products containing animal fats, and also the increased consumption of the products containing potassium, magnesium salts. Food at cardiovascular diseases has to be full and various, but not caloric. Food is eaten in the small portions, each 2-3 hours.
Diseases of cardiovascular system are very widespread, and is more often than others are the reasons of disability and a lethal outcome therefore it is much better to prevent their development by observance of healthy nutrition.