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December 13, 2011
The blood plasma is provided by its liquid part in which there are uniform elements. Plasmas blood contains from 50 to 60% depending on various factors. Its acid-base balance makes about 7.35 rn. This liquid represents a little muddy yellow or transparent homogeneous substance which after process of sedimentation of uniform elements gathers in upper part of a vessel. Also plasma is intercellular substance of blood and fatty tissue.
Water (more than 90%), proteins which make about 7% of its weight, mineral and organic compounds is a part of a blood plasma. Albumine, globulins and fibrinogens are the main proteins which are a part of plasma, also tens of other proteins are its part. Fibrinogen is the major protein participating in a blood coagulation which as a result it process turns into fibrin. After coagulation the blood plasma is called serum, it contains antibodies which are called immunoglobulins. In a blood plasma also various nutrients, enzymes, vitamins, hormones, end and intermediate products of a metabolism, inorganic ions are dissolved.
Collecting of donor plasma – an important point to which extensive practice is devoted. To its collecting it is applied a plasmapheresis method. Its essence consists in the following. Blood of the donor is purified of erythrocytes, collected in the special capacity then erythrocytes return to the blood donor.
The blood plasma which is rich with thrombocytes finds broad application in medical practice as stimulation of regeneration and healing of fabrics after various destroying factors today. The plasma rich with thrombocytes, is the cornerstone of a multifunction technique of plasmolifting now, is used in cosmetology and stomatology. Also from a blood plasma of animals and people prepare medicinal and cosmetology drugs: albumine, gamma-globulin, dry blood plasma, fibrinogen, etc. Recently use not of whole serum, but its fractions, components is more widely used.
Special serums – marked by phosphors, radionuclides or enzymes can be applied to scientific researches and diagnosis of some diseases.
Plasma transfusion can be used for fast healing of burns, at cirrhosis, is purulent - septic diseases. Plasma transfusion begins with a blood-compatibility test of the patient and the donor.
Introduction even not of large volumes of a blood plasma (to 50 ml) together with coagulant drugs yields good results at bleedings, the tone of vessels raises. Except a stop of bleedings, plasma transfusion of blood is used for the purpose of completion of shortage of any elements of blood or its liquid part.
If at the patient the increased coagulability is observed, transfusion does not become because of danger of complications up to a lethal outcome.
Studying of a blood plasma is of great importance for diagnosis of various pathologies and diseases, for example at a diabetes mellitus, at a deviation from the normal level of ingredients of blood, at emergence of pathological proteins, for example, at rheumatism S-reactive protein is formed.