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November 28, 2011
Polyarthritis is an illness at which there is an inflammation of several joints at once or it occurs consistently. It is a chronic illness. Joint tissue inflammations in which there are many blood vessels and nerve terminations are basic reasons of polyarthritis. At this disease problems with a sinovalny cover which surrounds a joint are noted.
Considering the reasons for which polyarthritis develops, the following types of a disease are defined:
- Polyarthritis rhematoid – as a rule, it does not contact an infection which gets into a joint, however, chronic damage of several joints as a result develops. Rhematoid polyarthritis affects connecting fabric and is a heavy system illness. Quickly enough this illness affects also other bodies in view of what treatment of polyarthritis at the earliest stage is very important.
- Polyarthritis infectious is a consequence of the postponed infection in due time. Tuberculosis, a brucellosis, gonorrhea can be the reasons of development of this disease. If to apply timely and adequate treatment of an illness which consequence infectious polyarthritis is then it passes quickly enough. However on condition of ignoring of treatment of infectious polyarthritis work of a joint can be broken.
- Polyarthritis crystal (polyarthritis exchange) – arises owing to disbolism in an organism. Its basic reason to become considerable accumulation of salts in joints. Crystals of salt cause irritation of a joint owing to what the inflammation develops. So, gout is crystal polyarthritis which arises owing to accumulation of salts of uric acid.
- Polyarthritis psoriasis — generally arises at people age till forty years. The illness develops after psoriasis damage of skin took place. It is shown in six-eight months. Generally this illness affects joints in feet.
- Polyarthritis reactive — is provoked by an infection which gets to an organism. The center of a disease is in urinogenital system or in lungs. Owing to reactive polyarthritis conjunctivitis, a polyneuritis, colitis can develop.
The main symptoms of this disease directly depend on what type of polyarthritis takes place, and also from the reasons of its emergence. In the presence of an infection in an organism infectious polyarthritis is shown. In this case the following symptoms of polyarthritis are characteristic: swelling and erubescence over a joint, mobility restriction.
At the same time rhematoid polyarthritis is shown by very easy symptoms in the beginning. The main signs of an early stage of this type of polyarthritis is high sensitivity of joints to weather changing. At first pains are expressed rather poorly, and swellings in joints are almost imperceptible. The increased temperature is in certain cases observed, however, more often as symptoms of polyarthritis loss of appetite and weight is shown. But in some cases at a pseudorheumatism temperature increase can be very strong, besides there are diseases of internals.
At children polyarthritis is shown after achievement of two-year age by them. Polyarthritis symptoms in this case are shown the following: painful feelings in joints and noticeable restriction of their mobility. The illness symmetrically affects joints, at the same time the hyperadenosis is observed.
Diagnosis of polyarthritis
To make to the patient the correct diagnosis, it is necessary to make, first of all, the detailed anamnesis and to perform very careful medical examination. If the patient complains that joints become less mobile in the morning, and at the same time such state takes place within half an hour and more, then the doctor assumes existence of inflammatory process. In the presence in the personal or family anamnesis of psoriasis it is possible to assume that the patient has a psoriasis polyarthritis. If the patient has available an intestines inflammation, inflammatory processes of an iris of the eye of an eye, or displays of inflammatory diarrhea were observed earlier, then all these diseases can become the polyarthritis reason.
At the patient with rhematoid polyarthritis takes place inflammatory processes in brush joints, and also a metatarsophalangeal joint of foot. These inflammations progress for six and more weeks. As a rule, the similar illness occurs most often at the women who did not reach fifty-year age. And at people of advanced age the illness is shown equally often at representatives of both floors. In an initial stage of an illness symptoms can incidentally be shown, but after some time they have an effect constantly therefore quality of life of patients becomes much lower.
As diagnosis of polyarthritis use also the test for a rhematoid factor. But specialists note that approximately in thirty percent of cases at patients with rhematoid polyarthritis tests show negative result. If in an organism available anti-nuclear antibodies, then it can be a symptom of seropositive rhematoid polyarthritis which is more severe form of an illness.
As diagnosis of an illness use also blood test, the test specifying a blood sedimentation rate, the test defining activity of aspartate aminotransferase. Also in the course of statement of the diagnosis the level of creatinine is defined and the analysis of urine is made. The cheapest and simple method is the test for a blood sedimentation rate which shows the level of activity of an illness at patients. But this research on is considered diagnostic. At the same time indicators of the test are exceeded not at all patients with rhematoid polyarthritis.
In case of existence of symptoms of polyarthritis for one year and longer time it is necessary to carry out a X-ray analysis of hands and a foot. Timely diagnosis of polyarthritis is of very great importance. Only at the correct and operational therapy of the patient will be able to anticipate emergence of injuries of joints and other serious violations.
Complications of polyarthritis
At rhematoid polyarthritis manifestation of a number of complications is possible. So, inflammatory processes in joints can provoke emergence of damage of eyes, skin, lungs, blood vessels, heart over time, and also other bodies. Besides some side effects can give also drugs which are appointed for therapy of polyarthritis.
Considering everyday discomfort which is caused by polyarthritis symptoms, at many patients the depression is shown. According to supervision, approximately every fifth patient with rhematoid polyarthritis on skin has rhematoid small knots. It consolidations under skin which are often formed on forearms, elbows, heels, fingers. Sometimes they appear sharply, sometimes arise gradually.
Rhematoid small knots can appear also in heart, lungs. As complication of an illness rash, and also other problems with integuments can be shown. It can become both an illness consequence, and a side effect from the taken medicine. Polyarthritis can become the reason of diseases of eyes. So, at patients the episclera inflammation, a sclerite sometimes develops. And if the first disease proceeds quite easily, then the second can even provoke sight loss. At Shegren's syndrome which also arises as complication of polyarthritis dryness and irritation in eyes is shown. If not to begin timely treatment, then on a conjunctiva hems can appear. Therefore, sick rhematoid polyarthritis it is necessary to check sight regularly.
At development of polyarthritis there can also be an accumulation of liquid between a pericardium and heart. It happens seldom, in the period of an aggravation or palindromias. And owing to reception of some drugs the condition of a muscle of heart can worsen. Patients with rhematoid polyarthritis have a high risk of display of cardiovascular diseases among which and a myocardial infarction.
Seldom shown and especially heavy complication is the vasculitis mentioning small blood vessels. In most cases at patients the number of red blood cells decreases owing to what there is anemia with all symptoms accompanying it. Seldom at polyarthritis Felti's syndrome – increase in the sizes of a spleen is shown. In turn, this syndrome much more increases risk of emergence of a tumor of lymph nodes. At formations of rhematoid small knots in lungs they, as a rule, do not influence a condition of the patient. However sometimes they provoke a collapse of a lung, an infection accumulation of liquid between covers in lungs. The people having rhematoid polyarthritis are much more subject to attack of infections. The correct treatment of an illness and a constant control from the attending physician will help to avoid such problems in the future.
Treatment of polyarthritis
The experienced specialist without fail has to appoint methods of treatment of polyarthritis of a certain look. This instruction to that patients for whom rhematoid polyarthritis is diagnosed is especially important when to become a main goal of treatment reduction of duration of the acute period of an illness. At treatment of rhematoid polyarthritis without fail use glucocorticoids which are in certain cases entered directly into a joint. Also therapy by the drugs having the anesthetizing properties is appointed.
The rheumatologist has to appoint a complex of treatment of polyarthritis. As a rule, at an exacerbation of a disease treatment of polyarthritis is carried out in the conditions of a hospital. At rhematoid polyarthritis massage and exercises from a complex of special physiotherapy exercises is successfully used. Also notable effect gives use of physioprocedures. However it is necessary to consider that it is impossible to warm a sore joint.
If improvement does not come, then the operative measure directed to removal of fabric in a joint which is struck with an illness is appointed. Now such operations are performed arthroscopic.
Prevention of polyarthritis
First of all it is important for prevention of diseases of joints observance of the basic rules of a healthy lifestyle. Everyday gymnastics, occupations by run and other exercise stresses will strengthen muscles and joints. Also general hardening of an organism is important.
It is necessary to treat timely all infectious diseases. It is important to consider, emergence of this illness can be promoted by the excess weight, irrational food, existence of big load of joints, and also frequent injuries.