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The help to the child at spasms
Convulsive attacks are rather frequent defeat of a nervous system at children. Children's spasms can be shown at the kid during the different periods of his life, and they are connected with the different reasons.
Spasms can be connected with influence of harmful factors which can happen as in the period of pre-natal fetation, and at the time of delivery. Such factors can influence the baby after the birth, in the first months of his life. At children convulsive attacks are observed much more more often than spasms at adults.
The reasons of spasms at children
Because the brain at children at early age still insufficiently mature, at them is noted a low excitation threshold of the central nervous system and, respectively, tendency to convulsive reactions. At children of early age high-permeability of walls of vessels therefore wet brains under the influence of harmful factors (toxic influence, infections, etc.) develop very quickly is noted. They are followed by convulsive reaction.
Attacks at children can be subdivided on neepeleptichesky and epileptic. Sometimes, that the first develop into the second over time. But at the child it is possible to speak about epilepsy only if the diagnosis is confirmed by the doctor after detailed inspection and studying of a case history.
Neepeleptichesky spasms at the child can be shown rather often. Spasms at newborns can arise in connection with the asphyxia, injuries got at childbirth with manifestation of defects of TsNS, diseases of cardiovascular system, etc.
Besides, spasms at children can become an effect of vaccination, intoxication of an organism, infectious illnesses, and also disbolism. Therefore at display of spasms it is necessary to conduct comprehensive examination of the child at once and to find out what reasons led to this phenomenon.
The following situations are the most common causes of spasms at children. Spasms at children right after the birth can develop in connection with asphyxia. Because of suffocation blood circulation is broken, wet brain develops, and in it dot hemorrhages develop. At such situation the baby needs to give timely professional help, at long asphyxia of fabric cicatrize, and the brain atrophy develops.
Often spasms because of this reason develop at the complicated childbirth when encirclement of an umbilical cord around a neck, a premature bursting of waters, placental detachment is observed. As soon as the child is brought out of this state, spasms stop, and the condition of the kid returns to normal.
The intracranial injuries got at childbirth are also followed by spasms. Most often such spasms at children happen local, that is there are spasms of the person, or a spasm in legs at children. Sometimes at such children weakness of muscles, and in hard cases — the general spasms of all body is noted. If at just born baby intracranial bleeding is shown, and help is not given him in time, then spasms develop approximately for the 4th day after the birth. Sometimes spasms are noted later, in several months after the child's birth. The reasons of such phenomenon — brain tissue damage because of scarring. In that case spasms at babies can be shown owing to an inoculation, an infection, an injury.
The injury, preventive inoculation or infection can become a push for an attack in this case. Spasms can be observed if at the child inborn defect of development of TsNS takes place.
At development of infectious diseases of a spasm can be shown as at children who had injuries at childbirth, and at absolutely healthy kids. The toxic virus which attacks the child's organism negatively affects his nervous system. As a result, symptoms of a disease are shown, except other, and spasms.
Very often spasms take place at children about one year at an acute phase of flu or SARS. If at the child the rubella, chicken pox, measles is observed, then spasms can develop at peak of rashes. At spasm neuroinfections at children occur owing to increase of intracranial pressure. At the same time all body strains. After adequate treatment of diseases is carried out, and temperature is normalized, spasms stop.
Sometimes developing of spasms at children can be connected with reaction to maintaining a vaccine. The risk of developing of spasms at children at whom high degree of convulsive readiness is noted is especially high. Therefore, parents of such children shall know how first aid at spasms is given. For this purpose it is possible not only to study the corresponding rules, but also to watch video. But if the child had asphyxia, birth trauma or exudative diathesis, then to it earlier, most likely, will not carry out preventive inoculations.
Convulsive attacks at children can be also shown because of disturbances in exchange processes. As a result, in an organism deficit of some minerals (magnesium, potassium, calcium) is noted.
But if day and night spasms at children develop for no apparent reason, then parents have to consult surely with the doctor to exclude development of epilepsy.
Types of spasms
Considering nature of reductions of muscles, tonic and clonic spasms are defined. Tonic spasms at children are rather long reductions of muscles owing to which it is observed hardenings of extremities in the provision of bending or extension. At the same time the body of the child is extended, and the head bends to a breast or is thrown back back. Dynamic reductions of flexion and extensive muscles are characteristic of clonic spasms. As a result, the fast involuntary movements of a trunk, hands, legs are noted. Often there are also toniko-clonic spasms when in an attack two phases are noted. If to define completeness of involvement of skeletal muscles, then local (partial) and general (generalized) spasms are defined.
Febrile spasms at children develop at children to six-year age. They arise at high temperature. It is possible to speak about febrile spasms if it is about developing of convulsive attacks at children at whom before spasms it was not noted. Such spasms are connected with immaturity of a nervous system and arise against high temperature. One of important factors in this case – a genetic favor to spasms. At febrile spasms the child is completely discharged of the outside world, he can become blue, hold the breath. Sometimes such spasms arise series, but at the same time they seldom proceed more than 15 minutes. Treatment of such state is carried out only with participation of the doctor. At their manifestation it is important to give the correct first aid.
Respiratory and affective spasms develop at the child owing to very strong emotions. It is a peculiar hysterical reaction to an emotional shock. Such convulsive attacks are noted at children in the period of life from 6 months to 3 flyings.
At spasms at the child the head is thrown back, extremities are extended forward. Most often the kid faints, he clenches teeth and eyes are rolled up. In certain cases there is a foam on lips. The body is strained, but at the same time extremities can twitch, or they are completely unclenched and stiffen. At the kid lips can become blue, there is also an involuntary urination or loss a calla.
After an attack the child becomes sluggish, sleepy, he often does not remember what happened to it, can not be guided in space.
Thus, at an assessment of convulsive attacks the doctor surely considers information on heredity, health of parents, on the postponed diseases during pregnancy by mother of the kid, about pathologies at childbirth. Collecting the anamnesis provides determination of character and features of convulsive attacks. In particular, it is important to define when there were spasms what the attack began with as attacks often repeat, and also to note other important points.
In the course of diagnosis the doctor obtains important data when carrying out an electroencephalography. Also research of an eyeground which allows to find some pathologies in children practices. If necessary also computer tomography, a pneumoencephalography, an angiography, a spinal puncture, etc. is appointed.
First aid at spasms
If parents noticed that at the child spasms begin, then the first that should be made in that case is to call the ambulance. During expectation of doctors it is necessary to work actively. First of all, the kid needs to be relieved of close clothes and to put him sideways. The child has to lie on a plain and rigid surface. If the kid lies on spin, then sideways it is necessary to turn his head. In the period of spasms it is necessary to provide passability of respiratory tracts. At first it is necessary to clear a mouth of slime. To prevent tongue biting and to provide air access, he needs to put something between teeth. It can be a scarf or the curtailed piece of fabric. If to the child to put something firm in a mouth, he can break teeth. That indoors there was a fresh air, it is necessary to open a window at once.
At spasms which are noted during crying it is important to create the quietest situation around the crying child. If the convulsive attack at strong crying of the child is noted, then it needs to recover breath reflex. It is possible to sprinkle the kid water, to press on a language root a spoon, to allow it to breathe salammoniac. It is also possible to clap the child on cheeks. After that it is recommended to give a demulcent. It is possible to use usual Tinctura Valerianae at the rate of 1 drop for 1 year of life of the kid. Sometimes at a strong tension and lack of breath at the kid it is necessary to do it an artificial respiration. But it is necessary to make it only after the termination of an attack as in the course of an attack this method does not practice.
If at the child febrile spasms are shown, then it is necessary to take measures for fall of temperature of a body. The kid needs to give febrifugal (paracetamol, an ibuprofen), to undress him, to make a wrapping with vinegar or to try to bring down body temperature by other methods. Until spasms ended, for the kid it is necessary to look constantly. It is possible to give it water only after the termination of spasms.
If at high temperature and spasms pale skin, a posineniye of lips and nails, a fever, cold feet and palms is observed, then it is about pale fever. In that case it is impossible to cool the child's body. It is necessary to warm and give it an injection of Nospanum or a papaverine in a dose of 1 mg on 1 kg of weight to expand vessels.
Children who have tendency to febrile spasms do not need to be driven in a bath, to let out on the street during the hot period of day. The child who is inclined to spasms at fervescence it is impossible to leave one if growth is noted it.
After the kid was given first aid, he is hospitalized in a neurology unit of a hospital.
Treatment of spasms is carried out only after establishment of the diagnosis and, first of all, consists in therapy of a basic disease. In the course of treatment use anticonvulsant drugs, appoint thermal procedures, massage. Also use of febrifugal drugs, dehydrating means, and also drugs which improve exchange processes in an organism practices.
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