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Diarrhea at children
The diarrhea is an allocation of excrements which have a liquid consistence and there are more than two times a day. The reason of such phenomenon — too fast passing of contents of intestines of the person because his peristaltics is broken, or in a large intestine is broken absorption of water and the intestinal wall allocates a lot of inflammatory secret.
Most often the diarrhea at the kid is a symptom of diseases of a small or large intestine. However physicians classify a diarrhea on several different types depending on the reasons of its origin: infectious, alimentary, dispepsichesky, toxic, medicamentous and neurogenic. It is necessary to pay attention to frequent displays of a diarrhea at the child. The diarrhea at the baby, and also at the child to three-year age is especially dangerous.
The diarrhea reasons at children
The different reasons of a diarrhea at children depending on what its look is diagnosed are defined. Existence of infectious ponos is noted at salmonellosis, dysentery, food poisonings, viral diseases, etc. Very often viral diarrhea is diagnosed for modern children. Its basic reasons at the child is a rotavirus. Generally the diarrhea provoked by rotaviruses affects children till two years. As a rule, it is spodarichesky cases, however sometimes there are also epidemics of a rotavirusny infection. At a rotavirusny infection the incubation interval can proceed several days. It is shown sharply — vomiting, the general symptoms of an indisposition and a diarrhea. At a virus gastroenteritis of pain in a stomach, as a rule, is not present. The diarrhea has watery character, and liquid which the child loses in the course of such illness, contains many salts. If at the adult the virus diarrhea can proceed about three days, then at children the illness sometimes lasts about six days. In the course of treatment it is very important to provide
substitution of that liquid which was lost by an organism as severe dehydration can be life-threatening the person. Therefore drink with the content of salt and glucose is surely recommended to the child. Use of antibiotics for treatment of the children sick with a water diarrhea, does not influence disease duration.
The alimentary children's diarrhea is shown as result of the long period of disturbance of food, at uniform food, in case of an allergy to food stuffs or to medicamentous drugs.
The reason of a dispepsichesky diarrhea — disturbance of process of digestion of food because of a secretory hepatic unsufficiency, a stomach, a pancreas. Also dispepsichesky diarrhea can turn out to be consequence of insufficient products of a number of enzymes a small bowel. The diarrhea at the baby can develop owing to a lactose intolerance. In this case the health of the kid becomes worse after food after a while milk (at the baby is after feeding, at children of seniors – after reception of whole milk or molokoprodukt). At sugar insufficiency the same is observed if the child used food with sugar.
The toxic diarrhea at the child is shown as an effect of a renal failure, and also at organism poisoning with arsenic or mercury. The medicamentous diarrhea develops after reception of some medicines. Most often at children it occurs under the influence of antibiotics which can provoke development of dysbacteriosis.
Neurogenous diarrhea — an effect of disturbances of regulation by a nervous system of motor activity of intestines. So, the diarrhea at the baby can develop owing to strong nervousness, fear.
At children also the syndrome of the angry gut, and also a number of chronic diseases of a gastrointestinal tract is more senior than one year the reason of a diarrhea.
As the diarrhea is shown
The diarrhea at the baby and at children of advanced age can be shown by excrements of different character. Excrements can have both watery, and kashitseobrazny character, they appear with a different frequency. If the child has a dysentery, then the kcal, as a rule, initially is dense, and becomes liquid with impurity of blood and slime later. If the child got sick with an amebiasis, then its excrements will contain blood and vitreous slime. The diarrhea at the baby, except characteristic excrements, can be shown by an abdominal murmur, pain, swelling. Besides, pryamokishechny colic at which at the child frequent desires and feeling of convulsive reduction of a rectum are noted can be observed. Very often at babies frequent ponosa with similar symptoms after antibiotics are observed. At the same time there is no defecation, but small lumps with slime are sometimes allocated. Than to treat at the baby only the doctor who initially defines features of a condition of the child has to solve a diarrhea, interrogates parents how the kcal of the kid looks, and only then makes the decision what to do.
However parents have to understand accurately the fact that even easy ponosa negatively affect the general condition of the small child therefore treatment at the baby of a state which provoked such symptoms, has to be carried out without delays. The heavy diarrhea at the newborn as such state at babies and small children can quickly lead to exhaustion is especially dangerous, provoke a hypovitaminosis and, as a result, change of internals. In a case with hardly born child the doctor needs to tell about diarrhea immediately. Than correctly treat at not inborn only the specialist can define the diseases connected with displays of a diarrhea. Without medical preparation it is impossible to define what to do, and at the same time not to do much harm to the kid.
Some sources claim that the diarrhea at the monthly child and at children is more senior more often is shown during the summer period. But doctors claim, as diarrhea develops in a cold season approximately with the same frequency.
At display of a diarrhea at the child the doctor needs to define the reason of his emergence, first of all. If the state at the kid acute, that is is shown temperature at the child and a diarrhea, it is necessary to get rid of acute symptoms initially. What to do, parents will be prompted by the local pediatrician. After that for the purpose of specification of the diagnosis it is necessary to conduct research a calla of the kid regarding existence in it of pathogenic flora, helminths, cysts of lyambliya. It is especially important to conduct urgently such researches to small children as the acute diarrhea about one year causes faster dehydration of an organism in the child. But for kids after a year with heavy symptoms of diarrhea of research the calla is also carried out surely.
At a diarrhea often there are also changes of a picture of blood. Therefore, despite age of the child, it is necessary to conduct a laboratory blood analysis – it is actual also in one month, and in 6 years. So, in certain states at the kid anemia, change of an indicator of leukocytes can be noted, the maintenance of eosinophils increases.
Doctors define so-called "diarrhea of travelers" if the child of 1 or 2 years sharply changes the place of residence. This state occurs also at children of more advanced age at distant travel. Such state passes independently in 1-2 weeks when the kid adapts to new conditions. But parents have to remember that the child at any time could catch parasites always. Therefore researches need to be conducted surely. Often to children who were 1 year old and more appoint repeated research a calla through a certain period.
In the course of diagnosis an important indicator for the doctor is also the speed of advance of Carbolenum on intestines. For this purpose the child is 1,5 years old and are more senior it is necessary to accept Carbolenum. At a heavy diarrhea black coloring the calla can be shown already 2 hours whereas normal there pass about 26 hours later.
How to treat a diarrhea at children
Normal the healthy person in intestines has about 300 types of different microorganisms, the most part from them is not pathogenic. In the very first days of life of the kid their structure forms. Existence of normal quantity of the "correct" bacteria provides normal functioning of a gastrointestinal tract. With their help in intestines useful elements and vitamins are soaked up in an organism, the mucous membrane of intestines normally functions, the negative impact of pathogenic microflora is warned. To create normal structure of microflora, the correct feeding of the baby in particular, breastfeeding is very important. In the absence of that feeding only the adapted mixes practices.
If dysbacteriosis nevertheless is diagnosed, then to the kid treatment by biological products which contain lactobacilli, bifidobacteria is appointed. Their influence on an organism consists in activation of process of reproduction of these bacteria in intestines. At the wrong exaction of such drugs after a while after their cancellation to the kid can become worse again.
How to treat a diarrhea at children in each case, depends on the reason of its emergence. Initially treatment at children of that state which provoked diarrhea has to be carried out. So, at an akhiliya of a stomach reception of a gastric juice practices, when weakening functions of a pancreas festal, Pancreatinum is appointed. If the diarrhea was provoked by a hypovitaminosis, then the best diarrhea medicine at children in this case – the corresponding vitamins.
If the child suffers from long diarrhea, parents have to think not only of what treat at the child such manifestations, but also how to compensate the liquid lost by an organism. Saline solutions are for this purpose applied. For preparation of such solution mix of salts is dissolved in half of pure liter. Good means in this case is drug Regidron. Also means Glyukosan, Tsitroglyu-kosan are applied. Fresh solution prepares at least, than once in knocks. In the absence of saline solutions it is possible to give to drink to the kid not carbonated mineral water. It is especially important to fill quickly lost liquid if the kid has a dry skin, dryness in a mouth and dizziness, thirst is shown.
For babies the best diarrhea medicine for children is a mother's milk. Therefore it is not necessary to stop feedings by a breast.
If the diarrhea is not connected with defeat of an organism an infection, then the sparing fractional diet surely practices at a diarrhea. It is recommended to limit animal fats, carbohydrates, to feed the child only in the small portions. In the first days of an illness it is worth giving soups of a mucous consistence, tea from bilberry broth. A bit later, at the first signs of recovery it is possible to add the bread, meat and fish dishes steamed.
What to feed the child at a diarrhea with, depends also on the etiology which caused such state. So, at enzymatic insufficiency the bezglyutenovy, nonmilk diet can be appointed.
Treatment by antibiotics without complication does not practice in cases. Treatment by drugs of a broad spectrum of activity is sometimes reasonable. Besides, treatment of an enterosrbentama which help to accelerate removal of toxins practices. As folk remedies after approval of the doctor it is possible to give to the child teas from the plants having the knitting and antiinflammatory action. It is bilberry, mint, a camomile pharmaceutical. The fixing action has broth of dried pears, starch solution, rice broth, tincture from partitions of walnuts.
However the accurate scheme of treatment of the child at a diarrhea does not exist as the doctor surely defines weight of a condition of the kid, existence of other symptoms, etc.
Prevention of a diarrhea at children
To prevent emergence of so unpleasant phenomenon, it is very important to follow all rules of personal hygiene since the childhood and it is obligatory to accustom to it the child. Especially important point – washing of hands before acceptance of food and after walks. All products should be washed surely carefully (vegetables, fruit) and to process thermally (meat, milk, eggs, fish). Water which is eaten has to be pure, and it is better – boiled. It is worth watching also that food of the child was the most various and, whenever possible, natural. The correct approach to way of life, a hardening, activity will help to strengthen protective forces of an organism.
Section: Pediatrics (Children's diseases)