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The prolapse (from Latin this word designates "loss") is a state at which a certain body or its part is stuck out through a natural foramen. In this case the speech can go about a prolapse of the uterus at the woman through a vagina, loss through a rectum anus, etc.
Prolapse of the mitral valve
In this case it is possible to speak about a progibaniye of one or both shutters of the mitral valve. It caves in in a cavity of the left auricle in the course of a systole of a left ventricle. This pathology is considered the most often arising form of pathology of activity of the valve device of heart for today. The prolapse of the mitral valve is sometimes shown as independent pathology, however in certain cases this state can arise in parallel with other small anomalies of development of heart.
Much more often the prolapse of the mitral valve is diagnosed at children's and teenage age. Most often this state is shown at people with rheumatism, inborn heart diseases, and also with diseases of connecting fabric of hereditary character. Sometimes the prolapse is found even in newborns, however most often it is diagnosed for children after seven-year age.
The prolapse of the mitral valve is subdivided into the inborn and acquired disease form. It is also accepted to allocate primary type of a prolapse and secondary, arising as complication of some illnesses and also as the accompanying state.
Today it is considered to be that this illness arises as a result of some reasons of anatomic character (anomalies in a structure of the valve device, the pathologies which arose owing to some inflammatory diseases). Also the prolapse can be shown because of disturbances of vegetative regulation of the subvalvular device and shutters which arise owing to a psychovegetative syndrome.
Symptoms of a prolapse of the mitral valve
Very often patients with a prolapse of the mitral valve have no accompanying symptoms at all. However in certain cases people state complaints to manifestation of fatigue, the periodic strengthened heartbeat, pain in a thorax, headaches, migraine and a condition of concern.
The fatigue at the patient is shown as a result of disturbance of functions of the autonomous nervous system regulating breath and a heart rhythm. Therefore, supply of oxygen to blood is broken and the feeling of fatigue is shown.
Disturbances in a cordial rhythm at a prolapse of the mitral valve not always are dangerous. However at frequent repetition of strong heartbeat treatment of this state is necessary.
Pain in a thorax at people with a prolapse of the mitral valve is shown regardless of an exercise stress. Thus after Nitroglycerine reception pain does not pass.
In rare instances the stroke can become complication of this state.
At children with a prolapse of the mitral valve more often than at their other peers, quinsy, a SARS, an adenoid disease is diagnosed. Children for whom the isolated prolapse of the mitral valve is diagnosed very often complain of emergence of interruptions in heart, strong heartbeat, thorax pains, an asthma, dizziness. Such children are inclined to faints, a headache.
Sick children have periodically cardialgias, the pricking or aching character, the lasting several seconds, in rare instances – several minutes. These phenomena generally arise owing to a strong emotional pressure.
Children with a prolapse of the mitral valve quite often have asthenic addition of a body and high growth, they poorly developed muscles, a flat thorax. There are still some features to which during survey the doctor can pay attention.
Besides, at children with this pathology high uneasiness, frequent changes of mood, tearfulness, a condition of excitement, fatigue often takes place. Children can suffer from various phobias, depressions.
Diagnosis of a prolapse of the mitral valve
To diagnose a prolapse of the mitral valve, both clinical, and tool criteria are applied. The main symptoms of a disease are found in the course of research auskultativny also EhoKG-priznaki. At statement of the diagnosis also the anamnesis, inquiry of the patient, results of a X-ray analysis and ECG is often used. It is also important to differentiate a prolapse of the mitral valve with the systolic noise arising owing to other small anomalies of heart, insufficiency of the mitral valve. In the course of diagnosis researches of a vegetative nervous system of the patient are considered as also important step.
Treatment of a prolapse of the mitral valve
For children at treatment of the mitral valve observance of the special mode about which the attending physician in details tells is considered the main point. Exercises without restrictions are in certain cases allowed, in other options the doctor-cardiorheumatologist resolves an issue of a possibility of performance of sports exercises in an individual order.
Methods of treatment of a prolapse of the mitral valve directly depend on that, its symptoms, cardiovascular and vegetative changes are how expressed. If the mute form of a prolapse takes place, then treatment consists in normalization of the vegetative status and a psychoemotional condition of the child. At other forms of a prolapse non-drug and medicamentous therapy of vegetative disturbances is used.
If at the patient mitral insufficiency accompanied with the cordial decompensation which is badly giving in to treatment and other heavy complications takes place, surgical correction of a prolapse of the mitral valve can be applied.
It is important that children for whom the prolapse of the mitral valve is diagnosed were constantly observed at the attending physician and there took place regular inspections.
Prolapse of genitalias
According to statistical data, every second woman after forty-five-year age suffers from a certain type of a prolapse of genitalias. In gynecology it is accepted to understand as the term "prolapse" not only "loss", but also "omission". At this state there is a lowering in a vagina of the bodies located in a cavity of a small pelvis. Also together with vagina walls they can drop out outside.
As the reasons of a similar state specialists define the heavy course of childbirth. Especially often the prolapse of genitalias arises at women who had two and more childbirth proceeding with considerable complications, gaps. Similar pathology is shown also owing to a hard work, a raising of weights, a chronic lock or cough. The contributing factor obesity becomes frequent.
Quite often the prolapse of genitalias arises at women in whose family the similar disease was already observed. The hereditary factor can be connected with some features in a structure of connecting fabric.
Symptoms of a prolapse of genitalias
As a rule, development of this illness rather slow though also more rapid current is in some cases possible. Characteristic is also that today the given disease sometimes is shown also at women of younger age. The woman at whom similar pathology develops often feels weight in the bottom of a stomach, and also feeling of existence in the field of a foreign body. Such feeling amplifies during walking. There can be painful symptoms in a vagina, a sacrum and a waist, from a genital tract are allocated bleach or allocations with blood. The patient will be able to suffer from urological and proctologic disturbances which are most often shown by an incontience of urine and locks.
On a surface of part of generative organs which drops out cracks are often observed, skin becomes opaque, dry. Later display of deep ulcers which arise in the course of traumatizing during walking is possible. At the woman menstrual function can change, be shown a hormonal imbalance. Sex life at a prolapse of genitalias is possible only after the dropped-out bodies are set.
Specialists distinguish three different extents of omission of genitalias. At the first degree the uterus is displaced down, however the neck of uterus is located within a vagina. The gynecologist can define this state at survey. At the second degree of a prolapse the body of the womb is located in a vagina, at the same time the neck is already in anticipation of a vagina. At such state it is accepted to speak about partial loss.
At the third degree a uterus, and also walls of a vagina are located already below a sexual crack (full loss).
Often at omission hernias of walls of a vagina to which the bladder, an urethra, part of a rectum can get are shown, is more rare — part of intestines.
Diagnosis of a prolapse of genitalias
For high-quality diagnosis it is important to conduct kolposkopichesky research. The doctor has to estimate surely in what state at the moment there is a sphincter of a bladder and rectum. Besides, at statement of the diagnosis the general analysis of urine and its bacteriological research, urodynamic research, excretory urography is surely carried out. Rectal research also is one of elements of complex inspection.
Treatment of a prolapse of genitalias
In most cases a similar state it is necessary to treat by a surgical method. However it is important to consider that the woman has to address the specialist at the first symptoms of a similar state, without tightening. The earlier the patient comes to the specialist, the it is easier to return to bodies their normal anatomic situation. So, if treatment begins at an early stage, then it is quite possible to prevent loss by means of specially developed physical exercises which the patient has to carry out regularly. Hydrotherapeutic procedures are also effective in this case. As an alternative a surgery in certain cases the doctor applies treatment by means of imposing of a special uterine ring which has to hold a neck of uterus and a uterus.
However if the patient addresses the specialist at later stages, then without operation the prolapse of genitalias will not manage to be cured.
Prevention of a prolapse of genitalias
As measures of prevention it is important to avoid excessive traumatism of muscles of a pelvic bottom, and also generative organs. It is necessary to recover qualitatively an integrity of muscles after pregnancy and childbirth. Therefore, as prevention active lifestyle and regular performance of a complex of physical exercises is important.
Women have to avoid a raising of weights, and also try not to allow too strong loadings of physical character. The full-fledged mode of rest and a dream, observance of rules of healthy, good nutrition is not less important.
The doctors conducting childbirth have to pay special attention to rational tactics of their maintaining. It is important to protect muscles of a pelvic bottom from damage as much as possible. It is not necessary to allow long childbirth. In case of existence of puerperal injuries of a crotch it is necessary to recover as much as possible its integrity and to carry out all measures of prevention of pyoinflammatory complications.