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January 31, 2012
Prostaglandins belong to group of lipidic active agents. They are formed in a human body as a result of fermenting of some fatty acids, contain a carbon chain. These hormones are mediators which have pronounced physiological effect. Together with other substances – prostacyclins and thromboxanes form a subclass of prostanoid.
For the first time prostaglandin was synthesized in the forties the last century by the Swedish physiologist from semen for this reason, this term comes from the name of a prostate. As it appeared later, prostaglandins are synthesized also by many other body tissues. Forty years later it was revealed that inhibitor of production of prostaglandins is aspirin. Research of these hormones allowed the Swedish biochemists to get the Nobel Prize on physiology and medicine in 1982.
Presence of prostaglandins can be found practically in all bodies and body tissues. They are paracrine and autocrine aspirin, influencing mast cells, a uterus, an endothelium, thrombocytes and other bodies and cells. Synthesis of prostaglandins comes from irreplaceable fatty acids: arachidonic acid, gamma linolic acid, etc.
Earlier there was an opinion that as a result of synthesis prostaglandins due to diffusion come out a cell thanks to the high lipophilicity. But after a while special protein carrier which mediates cellular capture of these hormones was revealed, and also, perhaps there are also other carriers, unknown so far.
Synthesis of these hormones consists of two stages: at first there is an oxidation then – final synthesis.