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Stress it is accepted to call a state at which the person stays in the mental tension which arose in the course of very severe conditions. Periodically in life there are difficulties, events which are hard for transferring. As a result, the person reacts emotionally that accompanies various physiological and psychological shifts. Today there are many theories and approaches to definition of concept of a stress. Specialists consider as one of the most correct theories that which was offered in due time by G. Selye. According to this theory the mechanism which is responsible for maintenance of balance and internal balance is inherent in all organisms. On condition of influence of external irritants balance can be broken. Respectively, in an organism there are protective and adaptive reactions which cause overexcitement. The organism adapts to irritants by means of disturbance which is a stress. Respectively, if the irritant is present, the stress becomes more expressed. In an organism there are subsequent reactions: he thus tries to protect himself from influence of a stress. But it is possible to overcome a stress not always therefore the similar state can provoke development of diseases and even death. If the stress lasts the long period, then in view of too strong irritation of a nervous system different diseases are shown: migraine, dorsodynias, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, impotence.
To understand what is a stress, it is necessary to find out what reasons of its emergence. By definition of specialists any situation at which the person has a strong contagious excitation can practically become the reason of display of a stress. At the same time it is necessary to consider that not only negative events, but also positive emotions can provoke a stress. So, it can be a marriage, the child's birth. The stress can arise also owing to less serious situations, for example, after the conflict in turn or in transport.
Symptoms of a stress
Qualitatively and productively to fight against emergence of stressful situations, it is necessary to realize that the stress psychology is. There is a number of features to which it is necessary to pay close attention. So, women endure stressful situations more often than men. Women are more emotional therefore stresses are quite often shown at them by failures, alarm, depressions. Under the influence of the situation provoking a stress alarm reaction develops. It happens because of powerful emission in blood of noradrenaline and adrenaline. In development of a stress all systems of an organism begin to work in the emergency mode.
However stress psychology such is that moderate stressful tension somewhat makes useful impact on an organism. At a similar situation there is a peculiar tempering of physical and psychological capacities of the person. But it is important that stressorny influences were not too long-term. Otherwise their negative impact will be obvious.
The specialists studying stress psychology claim that it is possible to cope with similar situations and their impact on an organism, having concentrated on positive sides of life and inspiring in itself thoughts of success and happiness.
Types of a stress
Today it is accepted to allocate certain types of a stress. Approach to each type of a stress has to be a miscellaneous. So, the emotional stress is directly connected with emotions, reactions of emotional character. At a vnutrilichnosny stress irritability and a dissatisfaction is shown owing to internal experiences and discontent to which lead unrealized needs of the person. The stress is a consequence of such internal conflict.
Distinguish also working stress which is shown because of chronic fatigue and frequent manifestation of negative emotions on a workplace from different types of a stress. The working stress can turn out to be consequence of unfair job evaluation and other production problems.
The financial stress is shown when expenses of the person significantly exceed his income. The stress of this type develops if unexpectedly there are unexpected and unexpected expenditure, there is no financial opportunity to get the necessary things.
The public stress arises as a result of problems of political or economic character. As a rule, it is shown at group of people. An ecological stress – result of negative influence on an organism of ecological factors.
In this case types of a stress on one of classifications are given, however there are also others.
Management of a stress
Today the stress is considered already almost daily phenomenon, and it is possible to face it under any circumstances. To avoid the negative phenomena provoking a stress, difficult, and sometimes and it is impossible. However to increase resistance to stress, using a technique of management of a stress, in power to each person. There is a number of methods which allow to learn to manage a stress. The offered techniques can be used serially or in a complex. The main thing that their efficiency allowed to exercise control of a stress and to subordinate itself him.
To understand how to reduce stress in a specific case, first of all, it is necessary to be exempted from the suppressed experiences. The emotions which do not have an exit affect an organism destructively, provoking developing of mental and physical illnesses over time. Therefore, similar experiences need to be released. Psychologists recommend to use the most suitable method: to do a complex of intensive physical exercises, to draw own problems on paper, to sing or shout loudly. So, the similar method of management of a stress in large quantities is practiced for a long time in Japan. Office workers do not know what is a stress as can always "be discharged" in rooms specially allotted for this purpose.
Effectively also switching of attention works. It is not necessary to give in to bad thoughts. It is better to switch to considering something pleasant or to be engaged in positive and pleasant business. Psychologists for switching of a stress to use the imagined picture representing something pleasant and beautiful. After a while switching of a stress will become a habit.
Use also a relaxation method. The relaxation is very useful to an organism. For its embodiment it is necessary to include a pleasant melody and, being in a comfortable position, to try to relax as much as possible. Perhaps also aromomaset use, the weakening bathtubs.
Besides, chocolate (in view of its ability to increase the level of serotonin, the endorphines and other substances which are positively influencing mood), inflow of fresh air to the room, walk will help to win against a stressful situation fast speed, favourite music and aroma always.
To decide how to reduce stress, it is possible also during cleaning which helps to clear away space from unnecessary things. Besides purity in subconsciousness of the person is associated with a positive and changes to the best.
To realize how to get rid of a stress, also friends can help: it is regularly desirable to meet them or to make an appointment with someone from old acquaintances. Communication is an efficient technique of disposal of a stressful state.
Besides, advising how to reduce stress, psychologists mention a positive impact on a condition of the person of process of cooking of food, homeliness, a writing of poetry and stories, readings entertaining books. Each person can have also own technique of fight against stresses.
Prevention of a stress
In order that prevention of a stress was efficient in everyday life, it is necessary to make, first of all, existence healthier and correct. Adequately to react to stressful situations, it is necessary to reconsider the relation to life, to learn to concentrate on the main thing and to relax if necessary. To understand how to get rid of a stress in a specific situation, it is important to realize that the person can consciously influence the processes happening in his organism, applying an autoregulyation.
Using an autoregulyation, it is possible to apply four main ways of prevention of a stress. It is a relaxation method, first aid after acute stress, antistressful reorganization, autoanaliz a personal stress. The relaxation is an ability to relax and "unload" itself from the thoughts provoking a stress. Concentration of strong-willed efforts will allow to suspend acute stress. Important also definition of a personal stress of the person, a stress is shown at all in own way, individually.
As the most suitable method of an autoanaliz specialists define maintaining the so-called diary of stresses which will help to define what is a stress in each case and will become an efficient method of prevention of a stress further. Use of a similar method requires a lot of patience, in the diary throughout certain time it should be noted when and as symptoms of a stress under what circumstances it happened what feelings took place were shown. Having analyzed records for a certain period, the person will be able to understand that he specifically provokes a stress and to define how to reduce stress if it to be shown next time.
Stress and pregnancy
Pregnancy – the hard and long period, is also not present anything surprising that throughout incubation of the child the woman often endures tests by a stress. The reason of it consists not only in difficulties which often accompany pregnancy, but also in features of physiological changes in the woman's organism. The stress during pregnancy is provoked also by internal alarms of the pregnant woman, it is constantly overcome by thoughts of the future, about health of the child, about the forthcoming childbirth. The stress during pregnancy is shown under influence of both psychological, and physical factors. Out of doubts, often repeating stressful situations can bear harm both for the woman, and for future child. However the moderate stress, as a rule, does not influence the kid and mother negatively. Besides the stressful phenomena of moderate character train the woman for changes which are coming her already soon.
The severe and long stress during pregnancy can provoke some complications of a course of pregnancy, feeling sick of the woman, strengthening of toxicosis and even some pathologies at the child. Therefore each woman expecting appearance of the kid has to be able to get rid of a stressful situation, and, whenever possible, in general to avoid similar troubles. Dominance of positive emotions is important. The woman has to as it is possible to carry out more actively every day, to provide a full-fledged and healthy sleep at night, to have a rest for day. However if independently the woman does not manage to overcome stressful situations, then in that case it is necessary to get advice of the specialist and to try to overcome a stress by means of its recommendations.