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The breast cancer is a malignant tumor which develops in ferruterous tissue of a breast. This form of cancer is considered the most widespread among women around the world. After the seventieth years of the last century in the developed countries the number of the patients with this illness promptly increased. In view of the fact that tissues of mammary glands consist of similar fabrics at both floors, the disease of a breast cancer arises also at men. However from total quantity of cases of an illness the breast cancer at males makes no more than one percent. This form of cancer is the most studied, at the same time its researches continue. The oldest data on a similar illness reached to us since 1600 B.C. – cases of tumors are described in the papyruses found in Egypt. Throughout many centuries doctors faced a similar disease which did not respond to treatment. Only in the seventeenth century there were data that metastasises of cancer extend on lymphatic ways, striking, first of all, lymph nodes. After surgeons in the eighteenth century guessed that is subject to removal not only the mammary gland, but also the lymph nodes which are near it, and also a pectoral muscle, was possible to avoid total mortality.
On researches of specialists, the highest rates of mortality owing to a breast cancer take place in group of patients whose age makes from 40 to 50 years. As risk factors of developing of this illness are recognized: emergence of a menopause aged more than fifty years; absence at the woman of childbirth or late childbirth (aged after thirty years); existence of a similar disease at relatives (mother, the sister); fibrous and cystous educations in a breast.
Reasons of a breast cancer
According to the available data, the breast cancer arises in the presence of pretumor diseases of a mammary gland. First of all, it is mastopathies and fibroadenomas. The mastopathy is morbid condition which is shown owing to disturbances in hormonal regulation. Most often the mastopathy appears at thirty - forty-year-old women. Symptoms of this state are constant painful feelings in a breast, allocations from nipples are possible. At a mastopathy even very careful contacts to a breast can cause morbidity. In mammary glands there are small knots of tumorous type, more dense, than breast tissue. These small knots just before the beginning of periods are most expressed, after it they decrease or disappear in general. Over time changes in tissues of a breast can become more rough. It is especially important to carry out surgical treatment of a focal mastopathy. According to researches, among those who refused operation breast cancer was shown four times more often than at other women.
Young women and even girls have high-quality nodal educations – fibroadenomas. These are round dense small knots which have an accurate otgranicheniye from the main fabric. They arise under the influence of hormones-estrogen.
Emergence of educations in a breast also directly is influenced by a condition of reproductive system of the woman in general. So, inflammatory processes in a uterus, cysts in ovaries influence increase in number of female sex hormones. Besides hormones are emitted with the broken recurrence. In mammary glands such phenomena influence fabrics negatively. So, in fabrics the small brushes which are gradually merging among themselves are formed. Between them at the same time connecting fabric develops, and mastopathy symptoms appear.
Thus, the main method of protection against developing of a breast cancer is ensuring normal work of mammary glands. So, it is important to keep the first pregnancy, abortion can provoke an inflammation of appendages of a uterus and the subsequent infertility. As a result, the hormonal exchange is broken. At the same time repeated pregnancies, feeding of the child about one year and longer positively influences functions of mammary glands. Also for deduction of balance of a hormonal background in an organism it is important to have regular sex.
As a rule, women independently reveal existence of consolidations in a breast. Slowly, but constantly the tumor grows. If it is located near a nipple, then the nipple can begin to be pulled in inside, and from it there can periodically be bloody allocations. After this consolidation appear already in axillary area. These are tumor metastasises, moving ahead on lymphatic ways, get into axillary lymph nodes. The most dangerous at similar symptoms is the tightening on a visit to the specialist. Similar manifestations not especially disturb at first the woman – she fully works and lives. Sometimes, without paying attention to similar educations, the patient constantly postpones visits of the doctor what as a result to become a fatal flaw.
Symptoms of a breast cancer
After emergence of consolidations symptoms of a breast cancer are not strongly notable. However symptoms accrue over time, besides gradually there are new symptoms of an illness which already significantly influence everyday life of the woman. So, there is a noticeable deformation of a mammary gland: skin is pulled in, puffiness is shown. Later metastasises in the next lymph nodes are formed. The tumor to become more volume, gradually it gets into fabrics around, occupying sites of skin, cellulose, an edge. Owing to education growth the patient feels very severe pains. After that women already address specialists, however treatment can be already inefficient.
So, if to begin a cancer therapy at the first stage of an illness, then the positive result will be achieved in 90% and more cases. At the second stage treatment gives effect in 60%, on the third — in 40. At the fourth stage of cancer the illness recovers even less often.
Forms of a breast cancer
It is accepted to distinguish certain forms of this disease. The following symptoms of a breast cancer are characteristic of cancer mastitopodobny: a rapid current of an illness at which the breast very quickly increases at the same time the patient is disturbed by pains and hypostases. Skin is hot, intense and reddish. All symptoms are similar to displays of acute mastitis therefore it is extremely important to differentiate these diseases.
At a rozhistopodobny form of cancer on skin the sharp redness is shown, and reddening can extend out of limits of skin of a mammary gland. Quite often at the patient temperature therefore such form of cancer is sometimes confused to an erysipelatous inflammation strongly rises.
One more form of cancer – a cancer en cuirasse. It arises because of a cancer infiltration through absorbent vessels and skin cracks. As a result on an integument the thickening with tuberosity appears. As a result on a thorax a peculiar armor is formed. This form of cancer differs in a special zlokachestvennost.
Plane damage of a nipple and its areola is characteristic of Pedzhet's cancer. At initial stages of an illness of pacifiers it is shelled and becomes wet, these symptoms quite often take for symptoms of eczema. Further the malignancy moves ahead inside on channels of gland, at the same time in its fabric the cancer node with metastasises in lymph nodes appears. This form of cancer, in comparison with others, develops slowly, at the same time only the nipple is surprised.
Speed of progressing of a disease in general depends on a number of factors among which the age and the hormonal status of the patient are main. So, at young women cancer proceeds much quicker, metastasises for a short time develop. At more senior patients cancer can exist about ten years, and metastasises are not shown in general.
Diagnosis of a breast cancer
In the course of diagnosis of a breast cancer the major moment is independent check of mammary glands which needs to be seen off regularly. In such a way it is possible to find education in a breast at the earliest stage. The earlier the tumor is revealed, the surgical intervention will be less traumatic. At the address to the specialist first of all inspection and a palpation of a breast of the patient is performed. At first inspection of the woman is performed standing with the raised hands, later – with lowered. Further its inspection in horizontal position is performed. It is important to find out everything, as for a tumor: its existence, size, density, type of borders, retraction of a nipple and other features. Also the second breast is without fail investigated, and also the palpation of axillary areas and places over clavicles is carried out. Also the liver in view of a possibility of metastasises is investigated, and also the roentgenoscopy of lungs is made. At diagnosis of a breast cancer a number of researches is surely conducted. If it is about initial stages of an illness, then the general blood test in vitro is without fail carried out. In case of metastasises of a tumor it is necessary to define localization of metastasises. To define character of a tumor, biochemical researches are necessary. In the course of histologic researches there is an opportunity to find atypical and cancer cells which arise in the pretumor centers. At cytologic research reliability of results makes up to 80 — 96%. Bilateral mammography has high diagnostic value.
Cancer therapy of a mammary gland
The applied technique of a cancer therapy of a mammary gland depends on in what stage tumoral process stays. If the patient has an early stage of a breast cancer, then an operative measure generally happens to preservation of bodies and lymph nodes.
So, at a zero stage therapy of cancer generally has positive results. At this stage the illness not always is malignant, but most often this premalignancy. In this case it is necessary to visit the specialist regularly. According to further instructions of the doctor therapy is carried out. So, if small tumors take place, then in that case it is possible to carry out a lyumpektomiya during which there is a removal of pathological cells and parts of fabrics. After a lyumpektomiya radiation therapy for destruction of pathological cells, perhaps, passed during an operative measure is carried out. Development of malignancies is interfered by hormonal therapy at which Tamoxifenum is used. One more type of cancer of a zero stage — lobular cancer. Its pathological cells are formed in shares of mammary glands.
The cancer therapy of a mammary gland at the first stage is treated by means of different techniques. The surgical method of treatment of a disease is successfully applied. If a tumor in a breast rather small, carrying out a lyumpektomiya during which exclusively pathological sites are removed is admissible. Removal of the affected lymph node is also possible. To reduce probability of recurrence of cancer, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or a course of treatment is used by hormones. It is necessary to consider that hormonal therapy can last long very much – months and even years. Only then the positive result of treatment is possible. Some patients prefer carrying out a bilateral mastectomy, that is removal of both breasts, being afraid of formation of a tumor. Later the mastoplasty is carried out. However, today specialists prefer to apply other methods in fight against cancer cells.
During radiation therapy which is considered a standard method of a cancer therapy of a mammary gland after a lyumpektomiya today pathological cells which could not remove during operation collapse. At chemotherapy the drugs attacking cancer cells are used. Generally this method is used to prevent recurrence of cancer. At hormonal therapy the corresponding drugs which interfere with intake of hormones in cancer cells.
At a cancer therapy of a mammary gland at the second and third stage of development the specialist considers that malignancies remain within a breast or leave in nearby lymph nodes. For treatment of a tumor the lyumpektomiya during which delete education and part of fabric, and also a lymph node can be used. Methods of radiation therapy, treatment by hormonal drugs and chemotherapy are similarly used.
As a rule, at the fourth stage of development the tumor already extends to some other bodies. At the same time lungs, a liver, a brain, bones can be injured. In view of the fact that cancer cells are not located in a certain place, in that case do not apply system methods of treatment. Any methods of treatment do not give a guarantee of recovery of the patient, however they can slow down progressing of an illness and improve the general state of health for a certain time.
At this stage of a breast cancer recommend to use a chemotherapy method as treatment. Hormonal treatment or an immunotherapy is in parallel applied. At treatment drugs which can effectively overcome collateral the treatment phenomenon are also appointed: nausea, condition of fatigue, penetration into an organism of infections.
Prevention of a breast cancer
The most important rule of prevention of this disease is timely disposal of various consolidations in a breast. The normal rhythm of life of the woman from the point of view of her physiological features is very important. The self-inspection which is carried out regularly will allow to vyvit educations in a mammary gland at an early stage. To each woman who already was twenty years old specialists strongly recommend to perform the following operations: every month to perform careful independent inspection of mammary glands; to forty-year age to pass survey at the specialist each three years, after forty-year age inspection is performed every year. After thirty five years the woman should pass mammography research, aged from forty till fifty years it is necessary to pass similar researches once a year or in two years.