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Large intestine is called the final department of a gastrointestinal tract consisting of a rectum and colonic which in turn, consists of the caecum with an appendix and also ascending, cross and descending, and also sigmoid guts. The large intestine terminates in the proctal channel, and its total length makes about 1,5-2 meters.
Colon cancer are called malignant tumors of departments of a rectum (blind, colonic, sigmoid, direct guts), and also the proctal channel. Tumors happen various form, localization and structure. This disease takes the leading position among all cancer educations, and in a colon cancer costs on the fourth place on prevalence, conceding only to lung cancer, a mammary gland and a stomach. In the USA 50 thousand people die every year of this disease. Usually it is found in aged people of 55-65 years, the disease develops gradually, and symptoms of a colon cancer appear when the tumor gets the considerable sizes.
The colon cancer is classified by tumor growth forms on exophytic (growing in a gut gleam), endophytic (extending in gut walls) and saucer-shaped (growing at the same time both in a gleam and in a wall, in the form of an ulcer). Allocate four stages of a disease. At the first stage the tumor is in a mucous membrane of a gut. The second stage is characterized by a tumor which occupies a half of a circle of a gut, and extends to all its layers. At the third stage the tumor burgeons through all wall of a gut, and in the next lymph nodes multiple metastasises are observed, and the fourth stage is characterized by emergence of an extensive tumor which can burgeon in the nearest bodies (a liver, ovaries, etc.) and to form metastasises including remote. The survival at this stage of a disease makes no more than 1%.
It is considered that the major contributing factors to emergence of this type of cancer are hereditary diseases of intestines, diseases of a large intestine with a chronic current, and also improper feeding. Disease symptoms: emergence of a chair with blood impurity, chronic locks, constant abdominal distention and others. Diagnosis of a colon cancer is carried out by the analysis a calla on blood, kolonoskopiya, manual research. Treatment of an illness usually surgical, is sometimes supplemented himio-and radiotheraphy.
As a rule a colon cancer are arises against at once several adverse factors. Such factors which lead to development of a disease are adverse heredity, observance of the wrong diet and various diseases of a large intestine, from such chronic diseases distinguish colorectal polyps, an illness Krone, a diverticulitis, ulcer colitis and others.
Pay attention that in the presence of malignant tumors at relatives, the possibility of development of cancer of large intestine increases. Also the risk emergence of a disease increases in the presence in a family of hereditary diseases, such as Tyurko's syndrome and family diffusion polyposes.
Symptoms of a colon cancer
The cancer of a large intestine develops gradually, and symptoms of a disease are shown when a tumor of already rather big size. The most frequent symptoms of a colon cancer of disturbance of a chair, an abdominal pain, its swelling, tenesmus, rumbling, emergence of blood from an anus, sometimes in the form of impurity to a chair. At cancer of the proctal channel it is most often observed releases of bright red blood.
Disturbances of a chair are shown in difficulties at defecation, alternation of locks and diarrheas. There can be a feeling of incomplete clarification of a rectum. Kal can become tape-like. Also sick anemia, weakness, pallor, weight loss can disturb. At late stages of a disease intestinal impassability when there is a closing of a gleam of a gut with a tumor who needs to be treated by operational methods can be shown.
At emergence a metastasis on other bodies, jaundice, headaches, dizzinesses, etc., depending on the place of their distribution can be observed.
By the way, pain at an early stage is usually shown at cancer of the proctal channel where many nerve terminations are located. At cancer in other departments of intestines pain develops later.
Diagnosis of a colon cancer
Methods of modern diagnosis allow to distinguish a colon cancer at the earliest stage. The doctor analyzes complaints of the patient, after that carries out a rectum palpating. Patients usually complain of releases of blood during purgation and an abdominal pain.
Diagnosis of a colon cancer is carried out by rektoromanoskopiya methods, and also by means of the analysis on the occult blood. In case of confirmation of the diagnosis, the kolonoskopiya or an irrigoskopiya (opaque enema) allowing to find a tumor in the remote departments of a large intestine are appointed. Ultrasonic research of a stomach and bodies of a small pelvis allows to reveal a tumor and metastasises. If there is a suspicion on growth of a tumor on the bodies located on - to the neighbourhood, carrying out a computer and/or magnetic and resonant tomography is appointed.
Cancer therapy of a large intestine
The most widespread method of a cancer therapy of a large intestine is the oncotomy and zones of distribution of its metastasises. Before carrying out operation to the patient the bezshlakovy diet, laxative drugs in 5-7 days prior to operation is appointed. The way of washing of a gastrointestinal tract is sometimes used by special drugs (lavage, fortrans). An additional cancer therapy of a large intestine — himioluchevy influence (telegamma therapy, Phthorafurum).
Because of possible emergence of recurrence of a disease, after carrying out surgical intervention it is necessary to perform each 3 months inspection, manual research, columned or an irrigoskopiya, and time of times in half a year – ultrasonic research gastrointestinal tract and a liver.