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Development of children of the first year of life
Development of the kid about one year is the major stage in his life. At this time both mother, and all relatives have to be surely most attentive to the child. During this period it is important to follow not only to passing deviations in its health, but also to create all conditions for correct development of mentality of the kid.
What mother needs to know?
Very important point is carrying out careful inspection of the child by all specialists about whom mother will be told by the local pediatrician. First of all, parents have to be interested in such inspection. It is not always possible to define existence of a number of disturbances in functioning of a nervous system of the child right after his birth in view of existence of processes of braking in the neonatal period. Only defining further physical development of the child about one year, it is possible to define existence of such disturbances. If to define pathologies at once, they can be cured at early age, and further development of the child, 1 year to which it will be executed very soon, will proceed without disturbances. At the same time ignoring of such problems can lead to the fact that in the course of a growing the condition of the kid can seriously be aggravated. Therefore about one year it is necessary to pay close attention to physical development of children.
Ideally routine inspections are necessary for the child about one year every month. But even if mother seldom shows the child to doctors, she needs to watch over his health and to accurately note any disturbances.
Development of the child on months
To define whether there are no aberrations, it is important to know accurately how there is a development of the child about one year on months. So, at the end of the first month of life the baby can turn a head on a sound, look back, gradually he begins to smile.
The second month of life — time when the child begins to move actively: he sucks a fist, learns to hold a toy in hand, will raise and lowers hands. Besides he gradually begins to learn to hold a head and more actively smiles.
Physiological development of the child on the third month happens intensively. The child at this age already to learn to turn over sideways from a back, and also back. Lying on a stomach, the kid raises the head. Also he well holds a toy in a hand.
Psychomotor development of the child about one year actively continues also on the fourth month of life. Now it turns over already more freely, there is enough in hands everything that comes across to it. During this period the child gradually learns to distinguish people close to it from strangers. On the fifth month the kid becomes even more movably and constantly pulls all toys in a mouth. Monthly development becomes more active on the sixth month when many children already try to sit down or gradually begin to creep. Right now the child becomes more "talkative" — he already makes Bol accurate sounds and utters separate syllables.
In seven months the kid gradually begins to learn to sit down from lying situation, and sometimes tries to get up, adhering for bed sides. And here attempts to go become frequent closer by then when the kid is 1 year old. Toys at this age of the child already attentively consider, long hold in hand. At this age the kid actively reacts to close people. On the eighth month the child actively gesticulates: it can clap in palms, wave the handle.
9 months — the period when the kid can begin to try to go as he creeps already very actively and quickly. In its "language" there are intonations similar to those which he hears from adults. Three last months of the first year of life — the period when the kid with big hunting investigates the world which surrounds it. Right now the kid takes the very first uncertain steps, gives new sounds.
Intellectual development of the child
In spite of the fact that the calendar of development of the child about one year in detail describes that the kid on a certain month of life has to be able, parents have to understand that certain deviations from such "schedule" are quite allowed. For example, many children begin to try to go how they are 1 year old. And to hear the first words and phrases of the child parents can even not after a year, and is closer by two years. But at the same time it is important to understand that certain results in development of the child can be achieved by means of massage, chargings, the simple, but very important for the kid developing games.
If mother and the father notice that the one-year-old child develops with strong lateness, and there are some aberrations, then education of the child about one year has to be aimed at the active development.
On the first year of life intellectual development of the child is defined by several spheres. This development of his perception, motility, speech, emotions and thin movements by hands. Very important point is also physical development as any aberrations can seriously be reflected in the general condition of the child.
For the first twelve months of life the child grows up approximately by one and a half times, and on weight it increases twice. To provide the free movements, you should not swaddle the monthly child as hard swaddling can slow down both motive, and mental development. You should not sew up sleeves in baby's undershirts also as the kid has to move actively with fingers and take toys in hand.
To define that the perception of the kid develops normally, it is possible that he learned to fix the look on a certain subject, to turn the head there from where sounds reach. On the third month the kid has to be able to watch a subject which moves. After the fourth month new impressions as most of physicians incline that in the uniform environment the kid develops more slowly are required for the child. It is worth going daily for a long walk, to show to the child new objects.
Emotional development of the kid of the first year of life also happens at fast speed. If shout, the movements without coordination and reddening was his first emotion only, then after the first month of life the baby learns to smile, and also to react to mother and other relatives. If to bend over the child, he shows a so-called "complex of revival" — concentration on a face, the movements by hands and legs, sounds. After six months the kid is more actively interested in everything that surrounds him, and brightly reacts to the events around it.
Gradually the kid begins to understand those words which are told him by adults. But initially he distinguishes those voices which are familiar to it, learns to understand emotional saturation of the speech turned to it. Initially the kid moves a mouth, babbles, imitates sounds, vocalizes. If to monitor speech development of the kid and to help it, then the sounds said soon will become more various. Closer to one-year-old age of the child some mothers begin to worry that development of the speech of the kid lags behind norm. Pediatricians advise as much as possible to communicate with the kid, telling him what you do that occurs around it. Such communication helps the child to remember words and quicker to learn to say them. By a year the kid has to learn some simple words and satisfy those unpretentious requests which the adult supports also with the "speaking" gesture.
Children's psychologists advise to begin to speak with the child still when he is in a womb. With the newborn it is necessary to speak almost constantly, but at the same time it is important to do it correctly, pronouncing words accurately. With the smallest it is necessary to talk to pronounced emotions. And, talking to children who already were six months old, it is desirable to use full simple sentences and to articulate accurately, looking directly at the kid. While the child does not associate himself with the concept "I" it is worth calling it in the third party, using a name. Mother has to turn constantly attention of the kid to what he sees around. It is especially important to do it during walk when the child has new impressions. Once he tells about what occurs around, to describe what he sees.
It is also useful to tell or read for speech development to the child verses, humourous catchphrases. And closer by a year the kid can get acquainted also with the first books in which there will be bright and big illustrations. However, it will be necessary to watch that the book was not torn after a while. Specialists advise to give to the kid old magazines that he could express the desire to break off paper. Then books will remain whole.
Psychologists strongly recommend mothers and fathers to kiss, embrace the kid, to smile to him and not to be afraid of what such caress can be too much. The prematurity of the children surrounded with love and attention from the first day occurs much more intensively.
However, the prematurity of children about one year provides also schooling of the child to discipline. It is necessary to switch to this period of the disobedient or crying kid, distracting from the events on other occupation. Gradually children of early age should be accustomed and to a word meaning it "is impossible". Mother has to act consistently and at the same time to be firm. However it is not necessary to try to forbid the kid too many things, it is worth defining for itself several main moments and to try to carry them to the child. But at the same time it is necessary to consider that features of development of the kid of the first year are that that it is absolutely senseless to punish him.
Touch development — one more important point in cognitive development of the child. Thin motility of hands is defined by ability of the kid to be enough objects and to hold them in hand. Hvataniye is the very first purposeful action defining his subject thinking. Closer to one-year-old age the child is already able to imitate the adult, playing objects. Its movements are more realized, and it demonstrates manifestations of practical thinking. The prematurity about one year can include massage of fingers and hands which is advised to practice approximately from three-months age. Mother can conduct massage of palms and feet independently. At first it is necessary to stroke slightly them, then serially to bend fingers on hands, to squeeze them in a cam and to unclench. All the known game in "soroku-crow" — fine exercise for development of small motility. A bit later, in process of growth, the child himself also with pleasure will tell a humourous catchphrase about a soroke-crow, doing independently exercises for fingers. There are many rhymes under which it is necessary to show actions which are excellent gymnastics for fingers, hands, legs. It is necessary to pick up several such verses and to regularly read them to the kid, showing what needs to be done. Besides, with the kid it is possible to compose together tales of fingers and to arrange the whole mini-theater. Most of children just delighted with similar games.
Techniques of development of motility of the kid of 11-12 months provide games with pyramids, inserts, entertainments in which the child's fingers, etc. participate. By means of such exercises it is possible to carry out effective trainings of thin movements of fingers. By the way, development of the speech of the child is connected with small motility of hands.
To define, the child how timely develops, it is possible by tests for which carrying out mother with the kid at will can visit any center of a prematurity. But nevertheless in most cases to estimate speech development and other parameters of a prematurity of the kid mother can, just watching the child.
It is very important to realize that all recommendations about a prematurity of the child are actually easily realized. All exercises, massage, games harmoniously are entered in the general rules of care of the kid. If mother constantly remembers that the first year of her kid is decisive in many aspects of life, then his cognitive development will take place actively and harmoniously. One more decisive factor — constant care and caress from close people. If the child is loved, care for him, and he feels that mother and close people always nearby, then development of such kid, most likely, will be correct and timely.
Section: Pediatrics (Children's diseases)