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June 15, 2012
Rhinitis is an infectious disease at which the person has an inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of a nasal cavity. Actually rhinitis is a medical name of cold. All rhinitises proceed in two forms – acute and chronic. One of the most often found illnesses is acute rhinitis which can be shown as an independent illness, and also to arise as the state accompanying other infectious diseases.
In medical practice allocate several types of rhinitises which differ depending on the factors provoking them.
At catarral rhinitis at the patient continuous catarral inflammatory process of a mucous membrane of a nasal cavity is observed. Such state arises as a result of frequent development of respiratory viral infections, acute rhinitises, a high bacterial obsemenennost of a mucous membrane, the general decrease in protective forces of an organism. Besides, catarral rhinitis can turn out to be consequence of strong air pollution by dust or products of burning. Also the tobacco smoke is the reason of this form of rhinitis.
Display of allergic rhinitis is an effect of hit in an organism, in particular on a mucous membrane of a nasal cavity, substances which provoke development of allergic reaction. In certain cases seasonality, however at some people inclined to display of an allergy is characteristic of development of allergic rhinitis, this form of rhinitis is present at an extent of year. Seasonal cold is often shown as reaction to influence of pollen in a blooming period of plants. The food, dust, hair of animals can provoke also allergic manifestations.
Very often such state is shown in parallel with urticaria, allergic conjunctivitis, bronchial asthma, and also other displays of an allergy. In certain cases at the long course of allergic rhinitis at the patient polyps develop, and also the lower sinks of a nose hypertrophy.
Medicamentous rhinitis becomes an effect of reception of a number of medicamentous means sometimes. Generally such illness develops against treatment by drugs which reduce arterial pressure, neuroleptics, tranquilizers. Also medicamentous rhinitis can provoke alcohol intake. However most often the frequent use by a drop for a nose with vasoconstrictive effect becomes the reason of medicamentous rhinitis. Such drops should not be applied throughout a long time. The last especially concerns people of advanced age, and also those who suffer from illnesses of cardiovascular system as these medicamentous means can provoke manifestation of supertension and tachycardia.
Atrophic rhinitis arises at the person as an effect of a lack of its organism of minerals, vitamins. This disease often affects the people working where influence of harmful factors, for example, of dust, heats, dry air takes place. Sometimes atrophic rhinitis arises owing to existence of genetic tendency to this illness. Also this form of rhinitis is sometimes shown after radical surgical intervention on different structures of a nose was carried out.
Development of the vasculomotor rhinitis connected with vascular disorders often takes place at patients who suffer from neurocirculatory dystonia, hypotonia, at astheno - a vegetative syndrome, and also owing to some diseases of endocrine character. Vasculomotor rhinitis is shown as an effect of process of swelling of fabrics of nasal sinks. This phenomenon happens because of the broken tone of vessels generally, and also disturbances of a tone of vessels of a mucous membrane of a nasal cavity. This form of rhinitis develops owing to change of excitability of departments of a vegetative nervous system. Such phenomenon becomes the reason of the inadequate answer mucous a nose even on usual physiological irritation. There are changes of a structure of an epithelial layer, vsasyvatelny ability of mucous decreases.
It is accepted to subdivide several stages of an acute form of a disease at which different symptoms of acute rhinitis are shown. At the first, dry stage of an illness symptoms of rhinitis are shown by characteristic dryness and feeling tension in a nose. Gradually at the patient the mucous membrane bulks up, the nose congestion appears.
At the second, wet stage the feeling of a congestion of a nose becomes more intensive, the person practically cannot breathe a nose, there are strong allocations having mucous character.
The third stage – suppuration – is characteristic is shown by reduction of hypostases mucous a nose. At the same time it becomes easier for patient to breathe a nose, and allocation from mucous gradually turn into mucopurulent. Initially such allocations are still plentiful, but gradually their quantity decreases. In 7-10 days of a disease there comes recovery.
Symptoms of rhinitis of a chronic form differ from the manifestations described above a little. Some general symptoms are characteristic of chronic rhinitises of different types. First of all, it is noticeable the complicated breath by a nose, deterioration in feeling of sense of smell, continuous allocations from a nose. Besides, the patient with chronic rhinitis is often disturbed by a burning sensation and an itch in a nose, continuous sneezing, display of headaches, dryness in a nasal cavity. The person can also note strong drowsiness and a constant condition of fatigue. There can be crusts in a nose, sometimes there are small nasal bleedings, and in a nasopharynx very dense slime can collect, the unpleasant smell is sometimes felt. At chronic rhinitis skin on nose wings is also irritated, the irritation can take also upper lip. At the person the dream gradually worsens, he constantly snores.
Symptoms of rhinitis differ depending on what type of a disease developed at the patient. At catarral rhinitis all main symptoms are expressed moderately. The constant shchekotaniye and an itch in a nasal cavity is characteristic of an allergic form of rhinitis. At the same time the person very often sneezes, he observes the raised dacryagogue, skin on a nose and under it in view of continuous release of watery liquid reddens.
Vasculomotor rhinitis is shown by an alternate congestion: as a rule, it is put one, other half of a nose. Sometimes the congestion is published at the patient only in the lying provision. Besides, the patient can feel the general weakening of an organism, it loses appetite, the dream is complicated owing to a nose congestion.
Sometimes a nose as a result deterioration in ventilation of the lungs turns out to be consequence of long disturbance of breath, the blood stream is broken. Thereof more expressed there are frustration of a nervous system.
At atrophic rhinitis in a nose many dry crusts appear, owing to their falling off mucous is sometimes injured. Sometimes the patient feels emergence of an unpleasant smell, but at the same time people around do not feel it. Nasal bleedings which can periodically be shown generally pass independently, sometimes it is required to enter the wadded ball impregnated with vaseline into a nose.
Complications of rhinitis
More serious infectious diseases become complications of rhinitis very often. So, against rhinitis laryngitis, tracheitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, pneumonia can be shown. Sometimes chronic rhinitis passes into sinusitis. Also some forms of otitis, a dacryocystitis, dermatitis of a vestibule of the nose can become complication of rhinitis. Vasculomotor rhinitis it becomes very frequent the contributing factor of dl of the subsequent development of antritis, quinsy, chronic laryngitis and pharyngitis. Rhinitis at children provokes the same complications, as well as at adult patients.
Diagnosis of rhinitis
It is easy to define development of rhinitis, being guided by existence of the described symptoms. But in the course of diagnosis it is necessary to exclude existence of specific rhinitis which is shown as a symptom of some infectious illnesses — measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, scarlet fever. Also rhinitis can be shown at gonorrhea, syphilis, other diseases which are transmitted sexually.
If the suspicion on allergic rhinitis takes place, it is important to conduct allergological examination surely. Skin samples with allergens are for this purpose taken, and also special tests are carried out.
Vasculomotor rhinitis is diagnosed by means of studying of data of the anamnesis, and also a blood analysis which is allocated from a nasal cavity.
The rinoskopiya — research of ENT organs is applied to exact definition of a form of rhinitis. If the suspicion on manifestation of complications takes place, then the doctor can appoint carrying out X-ray inspection of easy, adnexal bosoms of a nose, middle ear. Besides, purpose of survey and consultation of other specialists — the allergist, the pulmonologist, the oculist is possible. Also carrying out tool inspection of a throat, ear, throat is sometimes reasonable.
Treatment of rhinitis
Treatment of rhinitis which arises as a symptom of an infectious disease, it is necessary to carry out at a bed rest. It is especially important to adhere to such mode to people at whom body temperature strongly increases. If body temperature exceeds at acute states an indicator in 39 °C, then it is necessary to refuse the hot bathtubs recommended at rhinitis for legs which are shown at a subfebrile temperature. Such bathtubs promote simplification of nasal breath and considerably improve protective function mucous a nose.
For treatment of rhinitis drops in a nose with vasoconstrictive effect are appointed sick. These are solutions of ephedrine, Halazolinum, etc. After there is an influence of such drug, it is reasonable to enter 2% Protargol which influences as disinfecting and astringent into a nose. Sometimes the doctor can also appoint reception of antibacterial agents. Most often such drugs are used in the form of sprays.
At treatment of rhinitis it is necessary to consider surely the fact that too long use of vasoconstrictors as a result can have some collateral unpleasant effects. Display of hypostasis mucous a nose, allergic reactions is possible. In the course of treatment it is obligatory to clear a nose of slime regularly. Process of a smorkaniye at the same time has to happen correctly as the wrong actions can provoke development of some complications. Nasal slime should be blown, opening a mouth, at the same time it is not necessary to apply considerable efforts. It is necessary to blow nose, covering nostrils in turn. If in a nose dry crusts were formed, they need to be softened at first by means of prokipyachenny vegetable oil or vaseline. After that crusts carefully are removed, and nasal slime otsmarkivatsya.
In the course of treatment of rhinitis it is very important to drink warm liquid regularly. In this case milk and tea with honey approaches. If the patient suffers from temperature exceeding 38 °C, then he is recommended to accept drugs with febrifugal influence. However in certain cases such drugs can provoke development of complications and lower the level of body resistance of the person to attacks of infections.
It is important to patient with rhinitis to eat fully, including in a diet products with the high content of vitamins.
Treatment of chronic rhinitis differs depending on its version. Sick with catarral rhinitis often appoint the means similar to drugs at treatment of acute rhinitis. For treatment of catarral rhinitis it is important to get rid of those factors which influence process of its development initially. Except treatment by antibacterial local drugs also a number of physiotherapeutic procedures which are appointed by the doctor effectively influences a condition of the patient. At inefficiency of treatment sometimes use cauterization of a mucous membrane or a cryolysis.
For treatment of atrophic rhinitis appoint use of ointments and a drop which have the softening and disinfecting influence. Dl of treatment of rhinitis of this form use also Solutio oleosa of vitamins A and E for an instillation in a nose. The good effect gives aloe juice, dogrose oil. Also carrying out alkaline and oil inhalations is appointed
For treatment of allergic rhinitis it is important to eliminate first of all influence of that factor which provokes allergic reaction. Sometimes it is enough to avoid close contacts with domestic animals, not to allow passive smoking, to constantly carry out wet cleaning of rooms. It is also important to adjust own food, having excluded possible allergens from a diet. Very carefully it is necessary to appoint also medicamentous drugs.
As medicines which are used for treatment of allergic rhinitis first of all the antihistamines having both local, and general influence are applied. They block histamine receptors of a nasal mucous membrane that allows to stop sneezing process, to eliminate an itch and emergence of nasal allocations. But at the same time the condition of a congestion of a nose does not disappear. Therefore, vasoconstrictive drugs are applied to treatment also. However more than ten days are not recommended to use them. At treatment by antihistamines it is important to consider that as side effects manifestation of strong drowsiness, weaknesses is possible. Coordination can be broken and overcome a periodic headache. It is important that antihistaminic drugs were selected by the attending physician, appointing them depending on specific features of the patient.
Treatment of vasculomotor rhinitis has to be directed to reduction of reactivity of a nervous system first of all. Therefore, it is very important to apply regular procedures to an organism hardening, to use the medicines applied to stimulation of protective forces of an organism. Sometimes for treatment of vasculomotor rhinitis acupuncture and laser therapy is recommended. If the effect of all described methods of treatment is absent, the doctor can appoint carrying out cauterization trichloroacetic acid of the lower nasal sinks, procedure of a cryolysis, and sometimes — surgical intervention. Sometimes carrying out the septoplasty – the operation allowing to adjust the bent nasal partition is necessary.
Prevention of rhinitis
As measures of prevention of rhinitis the general hardening of an organism, healthy food, the correct way of life is allocated. It is not necessary to overcool an organism. It is also important to ensure functioning and accommodation in rooms with clean air and normal level of humidity and temperature.
Section: Diseases of an ear throat-nose