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Vomiting at children
Vomiting — rather frequent phenomenon in the child's life. And, the kid is younger, the more often he can suffer from periodic vomiting. At the child vomiting can arise owing to the most various reasons. At the same time parents have to understand that it is necessary to take so important symptom into account. In certain cases to define why vomiting at the kid was shown, it is possible on character of emetic masses. But nevertheless in most cases display of vomiting at the child demonstrates that medical assistance is urgently necessary for it.
At vomiting there is a sharp gastric emptying which contents are thrown up through a mouth. Vomiting at children as, however, and at adults, begins owing to action of the emetic center which is located in a myelencephalon of the person. The emetic center is capable to be excited owing to receipt of impulses from a stomach, a liver, intestines, a uterus, kidneys, a vestibular mechanism of the person. Also the irritation of nerve centers can influence it. A striking example — the beginning of vomiting if the person feels an unpleasant smell. Besides, excitement of the emetic center can happen owing to effect of medicines, toxic substances.
Before vomiting is shown directly, nausea develops, breath becomes discontinuous and fast, salivation increases.
Directly vomiting mechanism following: initially at the person the diaphragm falls, the glottis is closed (thanks to it emetic masses does not get into airways of the child), there is a spasm of a lower part of a stomach, at the same time his upper part relaxes. Owing to fast reduction of muscles of a prelum abdominale and a diaphragm contents of a stomach are thrown out, and there is vomiting.
Vomiting at children can develop owing to the most different reasons. Infectious diseases, gastrointestinal tract diseases, surgical illnesses, TsNS diseases, a teething at the baby, etc. can provoke it. Depending on what reason provoked vomiting, it can be shown once and repeatedly, to be scanty and plentiful. Also vomiting can occur through certain spans. So-called atsetonemichesky vomiting is shown owing to excessive accumulation of acetonic bodies in the child's organism.
Before giving help, it is necessary to define the vomiting reason. It will help to make studying of character of emetic masses. It is important to know, there is at it a digested or undigested food whether there is in masses blood, bile, slime.
To that zhesledut to understand what happens to the child — it is shown vomiting or vomiting. As a rule, at the kid vomiting happens without stomach tension. This phenomenon — a consequence of the fact that the stomach is overflowed with food or air. In this case any vomiting medicine for children will not take effect.
The main danger consists that babies can have imperfect mechanisms. As a result, the risk of hit of emetic masses in respiratory tracts of the kid is high. However in process of the child's growing this mechanism is improved, and at children of 3 years it already works well-coordinated more.
At children of the first years of life vomiting is observed most often at acute infections, and also at poisoning with foodstuff. At the senior children vomiting most often is result of pathologies of a gastrointestinal tract, diseases of the central nervous system, disturbances of psychoemotional character.
If in an organism of the child infectious process develops, then vomiting is followed by severe nausea, temperature increase, weakness and a diarrhea. Severe vomiting can accompany a viral hepatitis.
Surgical diseases of an abdominal cavity — one more reason of display of vomiting against a pain syndrome, locks, ponos and other symptoms. So, displays of vomiting are often observed at appendicitis, a divetikulita, intestinal impassability, cholecystitis and other diseases. Establishing the diagnosis, the doctor surely is interested in features of emetic masses and directly vomitings, appoints additional researches.
Vomiting at children without temperature can demonstrate development of diseases of the central nervous system. This symptom is shown with the increased intracranial pressure, an inflammation of covers of a brain, epilepsy, migraine and other diseases. Night vomiting sometimes testifies to brain tumors.
Features of vomiting at the child
Treatment of vomiting at children in house conditions can be carried out only if the dangerous symptoms testimonial of gravity of a disease are not observed. Especially attentively parents of babies should treat display of vomiting. So, vomiting at the kid has to guard parents if in the thrown-up masses there are impurity of blood or brown impregnations. An alarming symptom — frequent vomiting at the child which develops more than 4 times for 2 hours. In this case immediate treatment as the organism of the kid is very quickly dehydrated is required. Besides, it is necessary to see immediately a doctor if at the kid at vomiting body temperature rises, strong slackness either semi-conscious or an unconsciousness is noted. Only the specialist can tell what to do in that case, to define the reasons of vomiting and to appoint treatment. It is necessary to call the doctor and at display of vomiting after falling of the kid, traumatizing the head, at total absence of a chair at once. Severe pain in a stomach — one more alarming sign. If the child is more than 2 years old, he can tell about it to parents. At younger children the pain syndrome is determined by characteristic behavior. All described signs demand immediate control of a condition of the child by the specialist. Therefore it is necessary to call "ambulance" at once.
Before arrival of acute management it is impossible to leave the kid unguarded at all. If vomiting at the child without temperature is shown, then before arrival of the doctor it is not necessary to take any active actions. The child needs to rinse a mouth after a vomiting attack. If it is about the baby, then he can wash out an oral cavity boiled water, using for this purpose the 20-vat syringe. It will help to avoid irritation.
In case of sharp fervescence before arrival of the doctor of the child it is possible to rub off a wet towel. Wet rubdowns can be practiced if temperature of 39 degrees and is observed above. Strong weakness at the child at vomiting provokes lack of appetite therefore to feed the kid who suffers from vomiting it is not necessary.
Why vomiting at newborns is shown?
Vomiting at the baby in the first days of life is, as a rule, observed if the newborn swallowed many amniotic waters. At this time the child usually stays under control of doctors in maternity hospital. If vomiting develops after the child's birth after a while, and at the same time disturbances of breath and periodic asthma are noted, then it can be signs of an atresia of a postnaris (strong narrowing or fusion of the nasal courses). Vomiting at newborns sometimes is a sign of inborn impassability of a gullet.
If in the first several days after the child's birth it has a vomiting to which bile, greens, fecal masses is added, then the doctor can suspect intestinal impassability, and also damage of intestines owing to sepsis, infectious damage, immaturity of intestines.
Except the specified reasons the hyperemesis lactentium can be noted at disturbances of work of a cardial sphincter of a stomach, anomaly of development of peloric department of a stomach, at defeats of TsNS. Also immaturity of a digestive tract, lack of rational feeding, etc. can be the cause of vomiting.
However parents have to understand that the single hyperemesis lactentium not necessarily happens a symptom of serious pathology. It is necessary to take the baby who just pulled out a little vertically, and after a while to feed.
As a rule, single vomiting at the newborn or chest baby happens after feeding. Therefore after food it is recommended to take a little the child in a vertical position.
Separately it is necessary to allocate developing of vomiting under the influence of psychogenic factors. Vomiting at the child can turn out to be consequence of strong fear, rage, nervousness. Besides as the psychogenic reasons of vomiting diseases decide on a mental component, anorexia and bulimia. Doctors define also so-called demonstrative vomiting which is result of desire of the child to draw attention to own person. Vomiting at the baby and at the child of more advanced age is possible also in case of forced alimentation. In that case contents of a stomach can be thrown up by the fountain after feeding. Temperature at the same time does not increase, the general condition of the child remains normal. Though parents have to show consideration for such symptom and it is obligatory to exclude other reasons of vomiting at the baby. What to do at often repeating episodes of such vomiting, the pediatrician will in detail explain.
Sometimes psychogenic vomiting is shown cyclically, in the form of attacks, at the same time also other disorders of vegetative character are observed. In that case parents have to take away surely the child on reception to the doctor-neuropathologist. At single vomiting parents have to follow waiting tactics, provide to the child rest and plentiful drink. He has to drink in the small portions.
Sometimes repeated vomiting is result of development in the kid of atsetonemichesky crisis. Accumulation of a large amount of acetone and acetoacetic acid in the child's blood is characteristic of this state. This syndrome develops at children with a serious illness. Besides, cases of primary atsetonemichesky syndrome are noted. In such a way the organism reacts to pain, feeding habits, strong emotions. At atsetonemichesky crisis colicy pains in a stomach are noted, nausea, raises body temperature. In urine, emetic masses and air which is exhaled by the sick child the acetone smell is caught.
Such symptoms — a reason for the address to the pediatrician. The child does not need to give any food for 6-8 hours. It is necessary to give to drink to the kid often, with an interval 15 minutes. It is recommended to drink alkaline mineral water, broth of dried fruits. If the child refuses drink, then liquid is entered to it by the syringe or a pipette. At atsetonemichesky crisis norm of drink — 100 ml of liquid on 1 kg of body weight.
First aid at vomiting
Parents have to watch that emetic masses did not get into airways of the child surely. If vomiting at the kid began when feeding, then it should be stopped for two hours. To prevent hit of emetic masses in respiratory tracts of the child, it is necessary to turn it sideways and to hold poluvertikalno, or to take it on hands and to keep in vertical position.
Before arrival of the pediatrician the child has to drink liquid in the small portions. At the same time it is impossible to wash out independently a stomach, to give to the child medicines.
Section: Pediatrics (Children's diseases)