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Sarcoma is a group of tumors of malignant type which consist of unripe connecting fabric. Pinkish-white color on a section is characteristic of similar tumors. A number of the characteristics concerning cancer tumors is inherent also in sarcoma. It is the infiltriruyushchy growth with which fabrics, nearby collapse; manifestation of recurrence after an oncotomy, fast emergence of metastasises which extend in lungs (if sarcoma of extremities takes place necks, the heads, trunks) or in a liver (if sarcoma of an abdominal cavity takes place).
The majority of malignant tumors which arise on soft tissues is referred to sarcomas. The oligosymptomatic current at which the overall clinical picture very much reminds benign tumors and diseases of not tumoral character is characteristic of such educations.
Tumors of soft tissues of malignant character are rather rare disease. At men this disease is shown more often, than at women. At the same time the majority of cases of an illness are the share of people age from thirty to sixty years.
Features of sarcoma
Sarcoma of soft tissues can be shown in any place. The most often this type of sarcoma affects a hip. Less often sarcoma arises on the head.
The tumor of this type looks as a roundish node of white color, or a node of yellow-gray color. It can have both a smooth, and hilly surface. Depending on what the histologic structure of a tumor is, its consistence is defined. So, the tumor can be soft type (a liposarcoma and an angiosarcoma), dense type (fibrosarcoma), jellylike type (myxoma).
As a rule, the malignant tumor develops in deep layers of muscles. In the course of growth the tumor moves ahead on a body surface. Education can quicker grow under the influence of physioprocedures, injuries.
Generally sarcoma is a single tumor, however at certain types of this illness also multiple defeats can be shown. At the same time they can be even at rather long distance from each other.
Metastasises at sarcoma extend on blood vessels. Especially often metastasises are shown in the patient's lungs, there is a damage of a liver, bones, lymph nodes less often.
The first sign of emergence of sarcoma is emergence of a node or swelling on a certain part of a body. Education has the round or oval form, does not feel morbidity of people. The size of this node can be small (from 2 cm), and rather extensive (to 30 cm).
Depending on what look sarcoma, is defined character of a surface of a tumor. As a rule, on skin there are no changes, however on it there is a local temperature increase. If the tumor grows very quickly, then on its surface the network of saphenas can be shown, education gets cyanochroic coloring, on skin ulcerations appear. At palpation of a tumor its mobility is limited.
Sometimes, quite seldom, owing to sarcomas of soft tissues extremities are deformed, however at the same time their functions are practically not broken.
Certain symptoms at which there is a suspicion on sarcoma of soft tissues have to guard the person. This emergence of a tumor which increases over time restriction of mobility of the developed tumor, formation of a tumor which proceeds from deep layers of soft tissues, emergence of a swelling later a long time (from several weeks to several years) after an injury.
Treatment of sarcoma
At sarcomas of soft tissues complex treatment is applied. At this approach carry out broad excision of a tumor then to the patient appoint a course of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The surgery is the main element at radical treatment of sarcoma. Depending on as far as sarcoma extended, and education is localized where exactly, operation volume is defined.
As a standard operative measure carry out an oncotomy within an anatomic zone. In intermuscular spaces together with tumors sites of adjacent muscles are removed. If the tumor burgeons in a bone, nervous trunks or in the main vessels, then to the patient carry out amputation of an extremity.
Additional method of treatment which is practiced after an operative measure is radiation therapy. If the tumor has the small size, then after operation radiation is made. This method considerably reduces a possibility of recurrence.
Recently the patient with malignancies rather often appoint carrying out chemotherapy. When using adjuvant chemotherapy the risk of manifestation of recurrence or metastasises after operation considerably decreases.
As a result on condition of an integrated approach (use of radiation therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy) efficiency of treatment considerably increases.
Kaposha's sarcoma is the tumor of malignant character having many centers and affecting all of a human body. The new growth comes from an endothelium of vessels, its clinical current can be various. As a rule, Kaposha's sarcoma is shown by skin tumors, however in many cases it affects lymphatic system, mucous membranes and internals. At this illness first of all lungs and bodies of the alimentary system suffer.
It is accepted to allocate four forms of sarcoma of Kaposha. It is classical sarcoma, immunosuppressive sarcoma, local (African) sarcoma and epidemic sarcoma. The last form of a disease is associated with AIDS.
As a rule, the arisen tumor purple, however at color can sometimes have a color a red, brown or violet shade. The new growth sometimes towers over skin a little, but in other cases it can be completely flat. The tumor looks as spots or small knots without morbidity. Sometimes this disease is combined with injury of lymph nodes, mucous the sky. The illness proceeds rather slowly. If Kaposha's sarcoma is diagnosed for the patient with existence of HIV infection, then this diagnosis allows to predetermine as a result at the patient AIDS. At sarcoma of soft tissues a current oligosymptomatic. At the same time during statement of the diagnosis special attentiveness is necessary, the clinical picture of an illness very much reminds benign tumors, and also some diseases of not tumoral character.
Kaposha's sarcoma – rather rare illness. It is more often diagnosed for males.
Kaposha's sarcoma is caused by an infection which is caused by a virus of herpes of the person of the eighth type. This virus can be transmitted sexually – with saliva or blood. At infection of the person in his blood specific antibodies for several months appear before at the patient the visible centers of sarcoma of Kaposha are shown. However presence only of this virus does not provoke development of sarcoma of Kaposha yet. This illness is shown only in case of existence of serious violations in functioning of immune system. Thereof the virus quickly breeds, provokes developing of an oncological illness.
Symptoms of sarcoma of Kaposha
Sarcoma of soft tissues can be shown practically in each part of a body. If the classical form of sarcoma of Kaposha takes place, then the disease centers first of all appear on extremities, namely on feet and shins. As the defining features of this illness it is possible to note symmetry and a mnogoochagovost of defeat. Sarcoma looks as a roundish node which color – white or gray-yellow. The surface can be and smooth, and with hillocks. On integuments spots, the plaques similar to small knots are shown. Defeats can have different color – from reddish and cyanotic to brown. Also outlines of defeats are different. As a rule, at them a clear boundary, a dense and elastic consistence, morbidities at a palpation does not arise. Sometimes there is an ulceration of tumors, hypostases of the extremities affected with a disease are shown. In some exceptional cases there is a defeat of exclusively generative organs, eyes, auricles, mucous membranes and other bodies. Among other subjective symptoms it should be noted an ache, pain, burning, limited mobility of joints. In view of the fact that Kaposha's sarcoma is a general disease, lymph nodes, bones and other bodies can be involved in process of an illness.
If the classical form of sarcoma of Kaposha is generally shown at men of advanced age, and in development of this disease feet, shins are surprised, then at epidemic sarcoma of Kaposha about a certain place of localization of a disease the speech does not go in general. So, the first centers of an illness are shown on any site of skin. Initially on a code the single node or a spot of crimson or violet color is visible. Morbidity at the same time does not arise. Often there are several centers of an illness at once. At later stages the disease can develop differently. So, in certain cases the form and color of nodes does not change till some years, however happens that modification happens even for several weeks. If education grows too quickly, then the person often feels pain, and skin about a tumor because of constant hemorrhages is painted in flavovirent color. Often on the center of education the ulceration and the center of a necrosis appears. Also the tumor can bleed a little. The arisen nodes and plaques can merge owing to what very severe hypostasis is shown. If Kaposha's sarcoma arises on mucous a mouth, then the centers appear on a hard palate. At first there is an erythema of violet color, later on site an erythema plaques or nodes appear. Besides, the centers of sarcoma of Kaposha sometimes arise on generative organs.
In the course of diagnosing of this disease specialists are guided by existence of a number of the signs described above.
Both system, and local methods are applied to treatment of sarcoma of Kaposha. At local therapy use radiation, cryotherapy, injections of chemotherapeutic means directly in a tumor, etc. Radiation is carried out generally in the presence of the large and painful centers.
Sarcoma of a uterus is a formation of malignant character which arises in a uterus. Today the illness meets rather seldom. Uterus sarcoma most often arises at women in 43-53 years. At uterus sarcoma characteristics of an illness is fast increase in a uterus, manifestation of disturbances in a monthly cycle, existence of painful feelings in a small basin, allocations of watery character sometimes having an unpleasant smell. If sarcoma of a uterus arises in myomatous nodes, then the clinical picture of an illness can be similar
In development of an illness there can be big zones of a necrosis, infection of a tumor, turns out to be consequence of what anemia, fever then there comes the cachexia. As a rule, patients address the specialist in several months after manifestation of symptoms of an illness.
It is accepted to define several stages of sarcoma of a uterus which differentiate according to extent of distribution of a tumor.
Diagnosis is carried out, being guided by data of the anamnesis, results of ultrasonic research, and also use of methods of hysteroscopy and separate diagnostic scraping.
The main method of treatment of sarcoma of a uterus is the surgery. The expanded hysterectomy with appendages is for this purpose carried out. After surgical intervention to patients a certain number of sessions of radiation therapy in the course of which bodies of a small pelvis are irradiated is, as a rule, appointed.
At uterus sarcoma very often there is recurrence of a disease, and, even at the first stage of an illness survival very low in view of fast manifestation of metastasises.
If sarcoma develops in a myomatous node, then the forecast will be more favorable.