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Seborrhea is an illness of integuments of the person which is provoked by disturbance of functions of sebaceous glands. Seborrhea affects those parts of a body where is located most of all sebaceous glands. Displays of this illness affect a face, a breast, skin folds, part of the head under hair. At patients with seborrhea excess of skin fat is distinguished, besides its usual structure suffers changes.
Generally the disease is shown at teenagers, however sometimes symptoms of seborrhea arise also at mature people. As a rule, at aged people after forty years seborrhea is shown periodically. It is accepted to distinguish two types of seborrhea – there is fat seborrhea and dry seborrhea. More often fat seborrhea is diagnosed for people. This illness has the following characteristic signs: glands produce a lot of liquid skin fat, skin becomes slippery to the touch and shining by sight. There is a gray shade of skin later, it becomes covered by eels. Fat seborrhea is shown by the strengthened release of skin fat as a part of which there is too much oleic acid. Skin because of existence of a large number of enlarged pores becomes similar to an orange crust. There is an opinion that fat seborrhea prevails at people who have dark skin color.
If seborrhea is shown on the head, then at the person hair very quickly become dirty and fat, begin to stick together in slovenly locks. Under scales coloring of skin remains in a normality. However the structure of hair changes: they become thin, very fragile and can be split on the ends.
Integuments at patients with seborrhea, as a rule, has alkali reaction, and these are premises to manifestation of consecutive infection. So, the piogenic infection can join seborrhea.
Symptoms of seborrhea can be shown differently at people of different age. As a rule, teenagers, first of all, have changes in a condition of integuments: a time extends owing to what spots and black points develop. The patients with seborrhea staying at mature age often have a seborrheal eczema, baldness, eels and purulent spots. People at advanced age owing to seborrhea can have warts.
At seborrhea at the person on places of defeat enlarged pores in which there are traffic jams are observed. As a part of these traffic jams – fat, dust and horn scales. Such dug-out comedones in the people are called "black points". However the closed comedones (whiteheads) also occur at patients with fat seborrhea. On skin there are small knots which have diameter of 1-2 mm. On the head, on skin under hair scales of grayish-yellow color and a fat consistence appear. At further development of a disease in the person hair can drop out.
At dry seborrhea skin produces viscous skin fat. At the same time on skin under hair severe dandruff is formed, it is constantly showered on shoulders and a back of the person. At dry seborrhea display of an itch of skin is possible. On a face skin becomes very dry, vulnerable, on it constantly there are irritations. Display of the seborrhea mixed is possible: in that case separate sites of skin are affected by dry seborrhea, others suffer from displays of fat seborrhea.
Tendency to this illness can be descended. Progressing of seborrhea is provoked by failures of hormonal character (too large number of androgens or too low content of estrogen). Also diseases of a digestive tract, constant stressful situations, a hypovitaminosis can be the cause of an exacerbation of an illness. The general condition of a vegetative and central nervous system, existence of persistent infections, a condition of an immunodeficiency also directly influences a course of a disease. Today specialists established that there is feedforward between sebaceous glands and sex hormones. Seborrhea is provoked also by some foodstuff: acute and too fat food, smoked products and sweets, coffee, chocolate.
The main reason of display of seborrhea at the person – too intensive reproduction of a fungus of Pityrosporum ovale. This fungus lives on human skin and if its quantity stays normal, then it does not influence a condition of integuments. However in case of very high level of production of fat, and also at disturbance of its usual, normal structure skin loses the necessary level of antimicrobic properties, and the quantity of a fungus sharply increases. Gradually there is a penetration of a fungus into upper skin layers, as a result skin begins to be shelled strongly and there is its keratinization.
This disease does not become the inflammation reason, however owing to seborrhea seborrheal dermatitis develops later. This illness is shown most often at people with the integuments sensitive to a secret of sebaceous glands, and also to decomposition products of this secret.
Diagnosis of seborrhea
Diagnosis of seborrhea is made by the specialist dermatologist. First of all the doctor performs careful external inspection which sometimes is enough to make the correct diagnosis. The experienced specialist can define characteristic displays of seborrhea very easily. However those reasons which provoked developing of seborrhea, to reveal already much more difficult. So the dermatologist practically always recommends to pass consultation at other specialists. So, the woman has to pass surely survey of the gynecologist-endocrinologist in view of a possibility of existence of high level of androgens. Besides patients of both floors should visit the specialist gastroenterologist.
Treatment of seborrhea
To get rid of seborrhea completely, it is necessary to liquidate primary reason of its emergence. Treatment of seborrhea has to be sent, first of all, to search and elimination of such reason. Frequent when ignoring the reasons of seborrhea its treatment to become very long and almost inefficient.
Treatment of seborrhea is carried out surely with an individual approach, in a complex. If the cause of infringement of functions of sebaceous glands is found, it is necessary to eliminate it. So, for example, at identification of the increased level of androgens in a female organism reception of oral contraceptives which lead a hormonal background to norm sometimes is appointed.
For treatment of seborrhea drugs of local influence, and also peroral means are used. As a rule, for treatment of a seborrhea of the scalp special shampoos which contain salicylic acid, ketokonazol, zinc pirition, selenium sulfide, and also tar are used. Such means help to get rid of dandruff, eliminate an itch and irritation of skin on pilar part of the head.
For treatment of seborrhea by the patient also appoint reception of vitamins. The most important vitamins promoting treatment of skin diseases are vitamins of group A and E. The insufficient amount of vitamins of these groups can become one of factors which provoke skin diseases. Patients who see a doctor with complaints to seborrhea have to keep to a special diet. In this case it is very important to limit the use of sweet, too spicy and fat food. Such food speeds up work of sebaceous glands and aggravates a state.
In the course of treatment of seborrhea on open sites of skin the special medical creams containing zinc pirition and other substances are applied. If the illness passed into especially started form, apply ointments as a part of which there are corticosteroids or retinoids to treatment of a seborrhea of the scalp and open sites of skin. Sometimes, in the absence of an inflammation on skin the doctor can recommend use of some cosmetic procedures. It can be special cleanings of face skin, a mask on the basis of some effectively operating means.
Sometimes at treatment of seborrhea retinoids for the purpose of decrease in level of a producing skin fat are applied. As a result the condition of skin after a course of treatment is normalized. However it is important to consider that the use of drugs of this group demands accurate and regular control of the doctor. In view of need of a long course of treatment and possibility of a number of side effects it is necessary to make constantly tests and to pass surveys of the doctor. There are also many folk remedies applied to treatment of seborrhea.
Prevention of seborrhea
To prevent display of seborrhea and to provide regulation of fatty functions of skin, it is important to observe some measures of prevention. The correct day regimen, a full-fledged dream, healthy food and regular physical activity is important. It is also necessary to use polyvitamins periodically. Specialists do not advise to abuse various cosmetics, to often apply hair-dyes.
The patient with seborrhea, and also that who is inclined to its manifestation it is necessary to follow very carefully all rules of hygiene shown to people with fat skin. It is important to watch that skin did not become soiled in life or on harmful production. The people having seborrhea have to spend much time in the fresh air, moderate stay on the sun is useful. The good preventive effect gives acceptance of bathtubs with sulfuric mineral water. Food has to include as much as possible fruit and vegetables, fermented milk products and vitamin-containing food. Also sick with seborrhea advise regularly to use beer yeast which contains many vitamins of group B. Specialists also recommend to wipe face skin with disinfecting substances.
Section: Dermatology (Skin diseases)