And whether you know...
April 20, 2012
Schizophrenia is very serious frustration of mental type at which there is a considerable distortion of thoughts, actions, emotions of the sick person. The patient especially perceives reality and also treats other people. Schizophrenia is defined as the most disabling chronic illness. Such patients face a number of problems at socialization in society, communication with other people, in close relationship. In the course of progressing of an illness of people becomes very closed, he is frightened many things. Symptoms of schizophrenia are shown at the patient all life, the disease does not give in to full treatment. However by means of correctly picked up therapy schizophrenia can be controlled.
Features of schizophrenia
According to the standard definition, schizophrenia is mental derangement at which the person loses an opportunity to distinguish imagined and real. In many cases, people at whom symptoms of schizophrenia are shown behave rather strange, at the same time their behavior in certain cases can even look as shocking. If the person has a sharp change of behavioural and personal character in connection with loss of communication with reality, physicians speak about manifestation of a psychotic episode.
If to compare schizophrenia symptoms at different people, then they can vary very strongly. So, some patients endure only one psychotic episode, other people sick with schizophrenia endure many similar episodes, however between them they can lead rather full-fledged normal life. Symptoms of schizophrenia can be aggravated and become less noticeable at palindromias and during remission.
The term "schizophrenia" designate the whole complex of rather various disorders of mental character. But nevertheless at different types of schizophrenia at people similar symptoms are often shown.
According to symptoms which are shown at the patient distinguish several types of schizophrenia.
Most often paranoid schizophrenia is diagnosed for people. Patients with paranoid schizophrenia have accurate false beliefs, so-called crazy ideas, that they are pursued or are going to punish. However at the same time such person at whom paranoid schizophrenia develops, thinks, speaks, expresses the emotions quite normally.
At the disorganized schizophrenia of people often talks and behaves in general incoherently, confusedly, besides, such patients suffer from an anartiriya. Very often at their behavior there is an indifference, despondency, sometimes they can behave rather inadequately and even childly. In view of presence of a certain degree of disorganization at behavior people with such symptoms of schizophrenia can not always conduct normal daily activity. So, it is sometimes difficult to them to take a bath, to clean, cook food, etc.
At patients with catatonic schizophrenia the brightest are symptoms of physical character. Such people often stay in a motionless state and do not react to the world surrounding them at all. Rigidity is characteristic of them, at the same time they as if stiffen and have no desire to move. Sometimes at such people the specific movements of a body are shown. For example, they can show grimaces, accept very unusual poses. Some patients with this form of schizophrenia often repeat those words or phrases which were just pronounced by other person. Patients with catatonic schizophrenia are carried to group of high risk of exhaustion, a hyponutrient. Besides, such patients can cause themselves corporal mutilations.
At undifferentiated schizophrenia symptoms are expressed so indistinctly that with their help it is difficult to define any other type of schizophrenia.
At the patients having residual schizophrenia, syndromes of an illness are not so intensive, as at other forms. At the same time often at the person crazy ideas, hallucinations and other symptoms of schizophrenia still take place, however they are shown much less brightly than when schizophrenia was only diagnosed.
At schizophrenia at the person the certain symptoms of an illness allowing to suspect development of this disease are shown. Symptoms of schizophrenia are expressed by change of abilities of the person and his personality, and in a different span they can show different type of behavior. As a rule, at the first displays of schizophrenia symptoms of an illness happen very pronounced, and they are shown unexpectedly.
Most often symptoms of schizophrenia distribute on three different groups. So, define the disorganized symptoms, positive symptoms and negative symptoms.
At manifestation of positive symptoms definition "positive" not always designates "good". Such symptoms are obvious to patients with schizophrenia. Respectively, they are absent at the healthy person. One more name of such symptoms – psychotic symptoms. The following symptoms of schizophrenia enter this category:
— crazy ideas which are the strange beliefs which do not have real justification. At the same time the patient never leaves such ideas even if to him will give the accurate facts which disprove such idea. So, very often crazy ideas that he is, for example, God or a Satan that other people hear all his thoughts that someone intentionally puts certain beliefs in his head occur at patients with schizophrenia.
— hallucinations are feelings of the sick person which actually real are not. Sick schizophrenia can consider certain nonexistent actually objects, hear the head, catch some smells which are not in reality. Also can seem to the person that someone touches him though it not really happens. Specialists claim that the most frequent hallucinations at patients with schizophrenia are voice hallucinations. Voices which are heard by the sick person can order his behavior, comment on what does to the patient, etc.
The essence of the disorganized symptoms consists that the person cannot think rather accurately and, respectively, proper response is impossible. So, the pronunciation of absolutely senseless phrases or words that, respectively, considerably complicates communication of the person sick with schizophrenia with other people can become an example of such disorganized symptoms. In the course of conversation of the patient can pass very sharply from one thought to another, it observes the slowed-down movements. One more symptom of this type – impossibility to make any decisions. The person in such state can write much, at the same time his letter will not have sense. He often loses things, forgets where they lie. Also disorganized symptom is frequent repetition of gestures or movements – for example, the patient a long time goes around, takes senseless steps. It is very difficult for it to understand simple sounds, images, feelings which meet in everyday life.
Speaking about negative symptoms, we mean absence of norms of usual behavior at the patient with schizophrenia. Among negative symptoms it should be noted absence at the patient of the emotions corresponding to a situation and adequate mood. So, the person can begin to cry instead of laughing at jokes. An important symptom is also isolation of the patient both from the family, and from social life and activity in general. The person has no motivation, he loses satisfaction from life and a vital interest, to become to exchange vigorous. Respectively negative changes are externally noted: the patient does not follow hygienic norms, does not look after himself. The person staying in such state has a set of problems and in the working sphere, and in other types of activity. At it the mood very sharply changes – the person happy several seconds ago can suddenly be upset without the reason. Also as a negative symptom of schizophrenia at the patient the catatonia is shown. In such condition of the patient as if stiffens and the long period stays not movably in the same situation.
Till today the exact reasons of schizophrenia at children and adults are for certain not established. However, it is precisely known that schizophrenia is an illness, and its development has accurate biological bases. Therefore, schizophrenia at the person is shown not because of the wrong education or weakness of the person at all. Today it is accepted to allocate several factors which become defining in development of schizophrenia.
First of all, one of the reasons for which at the patient schizophrenia, heredity develops. The accurate tendency of seriality of display of schizophrenia in some families is observed. That is the genetic factor matters, and the possibility of development of schizophrenia to some extent can be transferred to the next generations.
It is proved that at people who have schizophrenia the imbalance of some chemicals in a brain takes place. So, such patients have very high sensitivity or produce very large amount of chemical of the brain which is called dopamine. This substance is a neuromediator, its function – to promote an exchange of messages to nervous cells. If in an organism a certain imbalance of dopamine takes place, then the brain in a different way reacts to usual stimulators, specially perceiving smells, sounds, visual objects. As a result the person has both hallucinations, and crazy ideas.
Disturbances in a brain of the person can become the reason of development of schizophrenia also. According to recent researches at patients with schizophrenia disturbances of structure of a brain, and also its functions were found. But nevertheless specialists consider also volume the fact that similar disturbances are characteristic not of all patients with schizophrenia. At the same time at some healthy people they also take place.
On development of schizophrenia in the person I can have influence and some factors of environment. So, situations at which the person endures a severe stress, a viral infection, and also too little expressed social interaction sometimes play a releaser role in development of schizophrenia in the person who inherited genetically tendency to this illness. Very often display of schizophrenia is characteristic of people who endure very strong changes of both hormonal, and physical character. Similar changes are most characteristic of young people, and also of teenagers.
Schizophrenia can be shown practically at each person, regardless of his age, race, a standard of living. Most often the first symptoms of schizophrenia appear at people during the teenage period of development, and also at young people who already were twenty years old. Both women, and men equally often suffer from schizophrenia, but at women it is shown mainly later – in 20-30lt, and at men – at teenage age. Schizophrenia till five years is diagnosed for children in rare instances.
Diagnosis of schizophrenia
Diagnosis of schizophrenia is carried out at those patients who have the corresponding symptoms. The specialist conducts clinical examination. Special analyses for diagnosis of schizophrenia do not exist today. Therefore, the doctor applies various techniques of research, for example, a X-ray analysis. Also laboratory blood analyses are conducted completely to exclude existence at the person of a physical illness, provocative similar symptoms. In case of lack of the physical reasons which provoke such symptoms the patient is directed to the subsequent inspection at the psychiatrist or the psychologist. Specialists of a narrow profile apply different programs of an assessment, psychological tests to an assessment of a condition of the patient, and also conduct the interviews which are specially developed for such diagnosis.
To establish the diagnosis "schizophrenia", the doctor estimates also duration of symptoms. So, if the person has symptoms described above are observed for, at least, half a year, establish it the diagnosis "schizophrenia". It is very important that diagnosis was carried out by the experienced specialist and approached this process versatily as there is a possibility of the wrong establishment of the diagnosis.
Treatment of schizophrenia
Treatment of schizophrenia is carried out, first of all, for the purpose of reduction of the expressed symptomatology, reduction of chances of approach of recurrence of a disease, and also return of symptoms after improvement.
Treatment of schizophrenia assumes use of several methods of therapy. First of all, it is medicamentous means. Initially for treatment of schizophrenia neuroleptics are used. By means of administration of drugs of this type completely it is impossible to cure schizophrenia, however the most pronounced symptoms of a disease they considerably facilitate.
By means of pikhosotsialny therapy psychological, behavioural, professional and social problems of the sick person are successfully adjusted. Such therapy is urged to train patients of control over disease symptoms. It helps to learn to define precautionary signs which demonstrate recurrence of a disease. Therefore, the person by means of the attending physician can develop the plan which will help to prevent recurrence of schizophrenia. It is necessary to distinguish rehabilitation by means of which people with schizophrenia are trained fully from methods of psychosocial therapy to seize social skills and to live most fully in society with this illness.
Also individual psychotherapy which is used for improvement of ability of the patient to overcome problems which are connected with his illness, and also for training in skills of permission of such problems is applied to treatment of schizophrenia.
By means of family therapy treatment of schizophrenia is carried out for improvement of everyday communication with the sick person in a circle of his family. Also sick with schizophrenia sometimes attend sessions of special group therapy on which they can get support from other patients and render it to them.
As a rule, the people sick with schizophrenia pass treatment in out-patient conditions. But if illness symptoms very heavy, there is also a threat that the sick person is capable to cause himself mutilations, him can hospitalize in a hospital to stabilize its state.
Treatment of schizophrenia is carried out also by means of electroconvulsive therapy. Such procedure consists in transfer of a series of electric blows to a brain of the person by means of the electrodes attached to the head of the person. Such blows provoke attacks, and as a result there is release of neuromediators in a brain. This form of treatment of schizophrenia is applied rather seldom today. But if other methods of treatment do not make success, or the patient suffers from a heavy depression or a catatonia, then such technique can be applied.
There is also a method of treatment of schizophrenia called by a psychosurgery. It consists in carrying out a lobotomy during which some nerve pathways in a brain are separated. In the past such technique was applied to treatment of those patients for whom heavy chronic schizophrenia was diagnosed. Today the lobotomy is appointed for treatment of schizophrenia extremely seldom. Owing to a lobotomy the patient has changes of the personality which are irreversible.
According to specialists, people who have schizophrenia constitute in certain cases danger, first of all, for themselves. Therefore suicide cases among such patients are rather often fixed. Perhaps also manifestation of cruel behavior at those patients who take alcohol or drugs. Therefore periodic treatment of schizophrenia is obligatory.
If adequate therapy, then the people sick with schizophrenia is applied can have high quality of life and it is productive to work.
Prevention of schizophrenia
For this time methods of prevention of display of schizophrenia are not known. But by means of early diagnosis and immediate correct treatment disease can be facilitated, having reduced the number of recurrence. Adequate therapy is pledge of the fact that the person will be able to conduct afterwards full-fledged life. It is important to consider also the fact that those people who in a family already had displays of schizophrenia have to be especially attentive. Heredity in this case plays an important role therefore it is important to such people to define emergence of the symptoms described earlier in time.
Schizophrenia at children
When carrying out diagnosis of schizophrenia at children it is necessary to consider that the behavior adequate for children of a certain age, can be abnormal for other age. So, parents can suspect display of schizophrenia at children if the child who already was seven years old does not show friendliness to other people, the dragon, spiders and others creations, terrible for it, which are not actually near it is frightened. Also the fact that the kid hears voices has to guard parents. All this can demonstrate development of a mental disease, in particular schizophrenia. Children with schizophrenia can have a number of difficulties in life, treatment of schizophrenia at children also is heavier process, than at adults. Very important at once after parents will suspect possible problems with mentality of the child, at once to address specialists as therapy of schizophrenia at children should be carried out urgently. However, according to the existing statistics, schizophrenia occurs at children now rather seldom.
Section: Mental, depressive disorders