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Schizoid frustration of the personality (Asperger's syndrome)
Schizoid frustration of the personality (earlier this state was also called a schizoid psychopathy) is a state at which at the person noticeable reduction of social contacts is noted. People with such frustration are not emotionally expressional, they are not inclined to have relatives the relation with those who surround them, and sincerely wish to stay constantly alone. The person with such frustration becomes reserved, goes to own world of imaginations.
Manifestation of schizoid frustration
Some lines of such frustration are gradually shown at the child already in three - four-year age. Children with schizoid frustration of the personality try to choose always lonely, silent occupations, at the same time avoiding active games and direct communication with coevals. It is not noted at such children and the expressed affection for relatives and dear people. Children with this disease early show interest abstract questions and to serious problems of the philosophical plan. So, the matter of life and death, etc. can disturb the child. Schizoid accentuation is characterized by manifestation of isolation, the child's otgorozhennost from the outside world.
Later, after receipt in school such child shows the expressed tendency to logical thinking, abilities to mathematics often are found in it. But at the same time such school student cannot adapt to usual life and resolve the simplest situations arising in everyday life. In collective they try to be fenced off from other children, they do not accept a fate in the general games and occupations.
In certain cases the schizoid psychopathy in rudiments is shown after the child's birth after a while. Such state is described sometimes as a syndrome of early children's autism. Most often at such child the uniform behavior, lack of emotional reaction on people around is observed. Such children hard learn to speak, at them the simplest skills of self-service very difficult form.
The most characteristic manifestations of schizoid frustration of the personality at the person is the paradoxicality and disharmony, both in appearance of the person, and in his behavior and in emotions. At people with this frustration unnatural motility is noted, it are insufficiently plastic. If attentively to look narrowly at gait and the patient's bearing, then in his appearance angularity is noted. In a mimicry vivacity, characteristic of the ordinary person, is not looked through, there are only its standard expressions. Modulation of a voice also is unusual – the patient carries on conversation monotonously. Features can be noted even in its clothes style: it can be emphasized aristocratical style or, on the contrary, negligence.
Patients with this frustration have peculiar hobbies, but they are generally unilateral. Such hobbies can be directed both to achievement of the insignificant purposes, and to rather serious developments (for example, scientific). But at the same time such people do not show interest in the commonplaces concerning everyday life, a family, etc. They do not keep up friendship with other people, are indifferent to family members, they are interested in the sexual relations a little. In this regard such people select work in which social contacts are reduced to a minimum. Often patients live in loneliness and try to avoid communication completely. As a result, social skills at patients with schizoid frustration of the personality practically do not develop. In marriage such people also have problems in connection with unwillingness of communication and sexual contacts.
The schizoid type at the patient is defined depending on that, lines of emotional coldness (anesthesia) and strong sensitivity (hyperesthesia) are how exactly combined in it. Two extreme types of the identity of such patients are allocated, at the same time there are many transitional options. At sensitive schizos the asthenic affect, they mimozopodobny, giperestetichesky prevails. At expansive schizos the sthenic affect prevails, they are cold, differ in a certain degree of dullness.
At the first type of patients (sensitive schizos) very thin internal organization takes place, they have the high level of sensitivity. This schizoid type of the personality differs in the fact that will painfully wound such people roughness, offense. Patients have very narrow circle of people to whom they are attached. Their traits of character force to be inclined to self-excruciation. Patients are not able to show emotions violently. However such people are ambitious, though not inclined to forgive themselves even small shortcomings. As a rule, frustration of the personality conducts to the fact that every day they carry out certain narrow duties, doing it is conscientious. Such person can lose composure owing to a mental injury. That for them the suspicion of a certain bad act, etc. becomes frequent. In such state patients of this type try to be fenced off completely from the world, and their mistrust considerably amplifies.
At the second type of patients (expansive schizos) such traits of character as determination, lack of tendency to doubts are observed. At the same time to opinion of other people they do not listen. In the course of communication with people dryness, indifference is noted. Negative traits of character – high-regularity, biliousness are often inherent in such patients. But at the same time they are vulnerable and are not confident in the forces. If such person endures a difficult life situation, he becomes fussy, irritable, at him periodic fits of anger can be observed. In such state at the patient the reactions close to paranoid can sometimes be shown.
The part of modern specialists claims that his unsatisfied need for social contacts with people is a basic reason of development of a similar state in the person. It is supposed that in the childhood parents of such patients could treat them cruelly. As the response to such education, at the person develops mistrust or impossibility to accept and show love and other positive feelings. Therefore, such people try to avoid any relations completely.
Still part of specialists who are engaged in the theory of a psychodynamics, demonstrate that frustration of mentality at such people are connected with absence of self-esteem and impossibility to create around themselves comfort.
The specialists studying the cognitive direction say that at such people the lack of thinking is noted. Therefore, they cannot catch emotions and respond to them. Besides, there is a theory about insufficiency of cerebral and endocrine system, about influence of a hereditary factor.
There is a number of criteria in the presence of which the diagnosis "schizoid frustration of the personality" is established. Very few things or in general nothing give pleasure to the patient. He shows estrangement and emotional coldness, cannot show tenderness, love or anger concerning other people, poorly reacts to praises and criticism. The patient practically has no interest in a sexual aspect of life, it is too anxious with imaginations. He prefers lonely life and activity, does not feel subtleties of social norms. There are no close friends and desire to have close bonds. Having estimated existence of such signs, and also watching the patient, the doctor draws a conclusion about the diagnosis.
As a rule, drug treatment of this illness does not render due effect. Therapy by medicines is made, only if at the patient accession of other illness is observed. The cognitive therapy directed to forcing patients to experience positive emotions practices. Besides, the group psychotherapy practices.
Asperger's syndrome is a kind of schizoid frustration of the personality. The disease is called by name the pediatrician Hans Asperger observing the children having similar symptoms. This state is one of autism forms. This lifelong dysfunctional state at which the person specially perceives the world surrounding it, people and also makes information processing. Such frustration is more often diagnosed for men. Besides more often Asperger's syndrome is diagnosed for people in whose family autism cases were recorded.
As a rule, Asperger's syndrome is the hidden state, that is its external symptoms at the patient are absent. This state at adults and children is shown in three areas. Patients experience difficulties in communications, interaction and social imagination. The disease proceeds throughout all life as treatment of a syndrome of Asperger does not allow to overcome an illness completely. Also specialists cannot state the reason of this state definitely. Existence of a disease allows to define the special test, and this syndrome differs from autism, the fact that the patient in general has normal speech and cognitive abilities.
This state at the adult is defined easier, than at children. As a rule, the period when at the child with a syndrome Asperger the period of active puberty begins is especially difficult for the patient and his close people.
The people suffering from Asperger's syndrome with great difficulty can understand language of intonation, gestures, a mimicry. Therefore, it is difficult to them to communicate with healthy interlocutors, and it leads to manifestation of strong concern and alarm. Very much often such people have high I.Q., they have an ability to training though in process certain difficulties can be shown. If the person with Asperger's syndrome gets throughout life support from close people and people around, then it can conduct full-fledged life.
Communicating with such people, it is necessary to know features of their behavior, and also to understand what difficult moments in interaction with the outside world they test. With Asperger's syndrome it is often heavy to person to understand when it is necessary to complete or begin conversation. Such people can begin or complete conversation inattentively, it is very difficult to them to understand sense of metaphors, jokes, sarcasm, etc. So that to help such patient to feel more surely, it is necessary to speak with him very laconically and accurately.
Despite desire of people with Asperger's syndrome to be sociable, it is difficult to them to maintain the friendly relations with people. They do not understand sense of some elementary social norms (for example, choose inappropriate topics of conversation), become indifferent during communication, behave uncharacteristically for healthy people.
Such patients often have very rich imagination that allows them to choose creative professions in adult years. However the social imagination at them is not developed. Therefore, it is difficult to them to analyze what result this or that situation will have, is difficult to understand a position of other person on a certain question. Their creative activity is, as a rule, limited and consecutive.
Children with such disease do not perceive games in which it is necessary to show the imagination and to pretend to be someone. They are rather attracted by occupations where the strict logic dominates.
There are also other distinctive features of people with Asperger's syndrome. It is the expressed love to an accurate order which consists that they try to establish own rules and the schedule of life. If it is broken, then at the patient the alarm and nervousness is shown.
Often patients with this syndrome show the expressed interest in a certain hobby. Sometimes such obsession a certain occupation becomes business of all their life. One more distinctive feature — touch difficulties. Feelings of such person (hearing, sight, sense of smell, taste) can be either are strengthened, or developed poorly. In this regard loud sounds, very bright light, certain smells cause alarm in some patients. It is difficult to that at whom touch sensitivity is noted to perceive the body in a situation which surrounds them. Therefore, to the person can be difficult to move, make actions which are connected with thin motility. Sometimes such people are shaken or turned to overcome a stress.
Reasons and treatment of a syndrome of Asperger
Till today researchers work on studying of the reason of a syndrome of Asperger. The factor influencing on manifestation of changes in development of a brain of such patients, specialists call a combination of genetic and ecological features.
Such frustration does not depend on features of education, circumstances of human life and is shown not because of the patient. It is difficult to diagnose Asperger's syndrome therefore the doctor has to estimate carefully the patient's condition, carry out inquiry of relatives. The doctor estimates existence of the signs described above, watches behavior of the person and draws conclusions about his state. It is the most difficult to diagnose such state for the child in the early childhood.
Today there are no special medicines or methods of therapy of a syndrome of Asperger. Patients should create conditions for comfortable life and development that they had an opportunity to self-actualize at adult age and to have the most full-fledged life. Also some methods directed to improvement of quality of life of such person practice. It is behavioural therapy, food correction, etc.
How to help the person with Asperger's syndrome?
There are some rules and strategy which can facilitate life and social interaction to the patient with Asperger's syndrome. However in each case it is necessary to adjust such rules in relation to an individual and his features of behavior.
In conversation with such person it is necessary to avoid an ambiguity, to state phrases clearly and accurately. In conversation the short parts having a logical conclusion have to be allocated. At the same time it is necessary to be convinced that the person understands you. Sometimes in conversation it is worth using records or a photo to facilitate understanding of a subject of conversation.
The patient should give the chance to say that it is interesting to him. It is so easier to break a barrier in communication. It is not necessary to be irritated if the person shows awkwardness as similar disturbances are characteristic of such patients. Consider also that people with Asperger's syndrome difficult catch mood shades, nonverbal gestures. At the same time they are not insensible, just it is difficult for them to understand and express emotions.
It is necessary to watch that the patient was not frightened of loud sounds, bright light. Disturb such people and any changes in life therefore to them the person needs to prepare and explain carefully everything that occurs, especially in detail and carefully.
Section: Mental, depressive disorders