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The sclerosis is a medical term which is used for definition of process of replacement of a parenchyma of bodies by more dense connecting fabric. The sclerosis is not an independent illness, but display of other main illnesses.
As the reasons of such phenomenon the most different processes can serve in an organism: disturbances of the address of blood, an inflammation, change which happen in a human body in connection with age.
The sclerosis can develop in different bodies. So, at a cardiosclerosis there are changes in heart, at atherosclerosis – in walls of blood vessels, at a nephrosclerosis – in kidneys, at a pneumosclerosis – in lungs, etc.
Multiple sclerosis is the illness of the central nervous system having a chronic current. Unfortunately, till today there are no drugs which completely would cure this disease. But a number of therapeutic methods allows to suspend progress of an illness. The warning treatment of multiple sclerosis allows to slow down significantly disease, to prolong remissions, to reduce quantity and frequency of exacerbations of multiple sclerosis.
Reasons of multiple sclerosis
The exact reasons of development of multiple sclerosis are still not known. Specialists speak about the autoimmune nature of an illness. Central nervous system manages work of all systems and bodies of a human body. It consists of a head and spinal cord. In view of the autoimmune nature of a disease the immune system attacks cells of own organism. Therefore, at multiple sclerosis cells back and a brain are surprised.
But there are also other theories about developing of this illness at the person. Therefore, physicians are inclined to consider multiple sclerosis as a polietiologichny disease. It designates that the reason of a course of a disease is a combination of several factors. It is about failure in work of immune system, external influences, diseases of infectious character, and also about a genetic favor.
Symptoms of multiple sclerosis
Symptoms of multiple sclerosis are various, and, their different combinations are possible. Speaking about symptoms of an illness and explaining to the patient what is it, physicians allocate more than 50 different symptoms of a disease which can be shown in each separate case. Depending on some features of disease and conditions of the person (pregnancy, the accompanying illness) severity and duration of such symptoms is defined.
When diagnosis of an illness is carried out, most often at multiple sclerosis the most common symptoms are defined. It is about a depression, constant fatigue, feeling of numbness or a pricking in hands and legs. Also dysfunction of a bladder and intestines, various sexual dysfunctions, dizziness, a periodic tremor and pain, an ataxy, disturbances of cognitive character, a problem with sight is noted. However, all these signs can testify also to other diseases therefore it is impossible to make to the patient the diagnosis "multiple sclerosis" only on the basis of definition of symptoms.
Life expectancy of people with this disease directly depends on timely diagnosis and the correct approach to treatment. If the patient does everything strictly according to the recommendation of the doctor, then duration of his life is equal to normal.
To diagnose multiple sclerosis not easy as its signs are characteristic also of a set of other diseases. The diagnostic method for exact definition of multiple sclerosis does not exist today. Therefore in the presence of suspicion on this disease the complex of methods of research is used. First of all, the doctor studies a case history, performs neurologic inspection. To the patient carrying out MRT, lumbar puncture is appointed. To exclude other diseases, laboratory blood test practices.
At development of recurrence in the patient illness symptoms which existed earlier are aggravated, or new manifestations develop. Recurrence of multiple sclerosis is also called attack or an exacerbation of an illness. The reasons of periodic development of exacerbations of an illness are also precisely unknown till today. At different patients, both weight of symptoms, and illness duration considerably differs. Sometimes some symptoms disappear independently in several days. But a number of displays of an illness at its recurrence considerably worsen quality of human life.
Diagnose so-called remittiruyushchy multiple sclerosis for most of patients. In this case the periods of remissions and an exacerbation of an illness alternate. At the same time remissions can continue even till some years.
One more type of multiple sclerosis — secondary progressing. In this case considerable deterioration in symptomatology takes place. Approximately at a half of patients with remitiruyushchy type of an illness for the first ten years the secondary progressing multiple sclerosis is shown.
At primary progressing form of an illness which is observed approximately at 15% of patients neither remissions, nor recurrence of an illness are observed, however symptoms constantly progress.
Most less often (approximately in 10% of cases) progressiruyushche-recurrent multiple sclerosis is noted. At this form of an illness the symptomatology progresses, but at the same time periodically there is acute recurrence of an illness.
Discussing treatment of multiple sclerosis, patients, first of all, are interested as far as we will cure multiple sclerosis. Now any case of full treatment of this illness is not known. But use of drugs of preventive therapy, allow to postpone development of new symptoms, and also considerably reduce quantity and frequency of palindromias. In this case immunomodulators, drugs of monoclones, chemotherapy are actively used.
Defining the scheme how to treat multiple sclerosis in an individual case, the doctor considers specific symptoms of an illness and appoints that multiple sclerosis medicine which is capable to facilitate their manifestation. However, at symptoms of multiple sclerosis not only tablets from specific manifestation are applied. If the patient addresses to the specialized medical center, to it physiotherapeutic methods of therapy, and also specially developed diet are also appointed. Also supporting treatment by folk remedies can practice. Thanks to permanent job of researchers over a problem of therapy of multiple sclerosis something new regularly appears in treatment of a disease.
At palindromias the patient often appoints high doses of drugs - corticosteroids that allows to reduce recurrence duration.
Doctors very carefully treat forecasts about the course of multiple sclerosis. But there is a statistics which demonstrates that the forecast is more favorable if the illness began till 35 flyings; the woman is ill; duration of intervals between diseases big; after recurrence there is a complete recovery.
At multiple sclerosis it is important to avoid infections as even ORZ can provoke an exacerbation of an illness. Patients cannot allow an overheat, overfatigue, too plentifully is. Negatively also stresses affect a condition of the patient.
Lateral amyotrophic sclerosis
The lateral amyotrophic sclerosis is also called an illness of motor neurons. It is the illness of a nervous system having the progressing chronic character in the course of which the central and peripheral motor neurons selectively are surprised. In such state at the person the increasing weakness of a shoulder and pelvic girdle, bulbar muscles, a trunk and muscles of a stomach is observed, at the same time oculomotor muscles and sphincters of pelvic bodies are surprised to a lesser extent. Treatment of an illness is carried out constantly, courses.
As a rule, the disease meets sporadic, family cases seldom take place. The person can get sick at any age, but to a thicket the illness develops at people after 50 flyings.
It is supposed that the illness causes a virus. The disease develops slowly, sometimes the person does not notice its beginning. First of all weakness of distal departments of hands gradually develops, the difficulty of the speech can be noted. Later the specialist finds existence of an atrophy and paresis of small muscles of distal segments of hands. Progressing of paresis and atrophies which can extend also to muscles of other parts of a body is gradually noted. Except the specified signs at the patient symptoms which demonstrate defeat of pyramidal system are noted.
Over time the patient has dysphagias, articulations, phonations. They gradually become more expressed. Language moves restrictedly, its atrophy takes place. At the patient the gag reflex is not observed, there is a continuous salivation in view of impossibility to swallow of saliva.
If there is a weakness of muscles of a neck, then the head of the patient can hang down, and the movements are limited. Over time also masseters weaken mimic. The person has a mandible, it becomes difficult for it to chew. Also involuntary laughter, crying is possible.
Doctors allocate three types of a lateral amyotrophic sclerosis: bulbar, cervicothoracic, lumbosacral. The disease always has the progressing character.
Diagnosis of a disease includes definition of existence of characteristic symptoms. Also to the patient the electromyography which data can confirm defeat of cells of front horns of a spinal cord is carried out. For specification of the diagnosis MRT of cervical department of a backbone and a miyelografiya is carried out.
The existing therapy methods till today do not allow to cure an illness completely. Several doctors of different specialties have to observe patients regularly. Reception of a riluzon, vitamin E, vitamins of group B is appointed sick. Also treatment by nootropic drugs, ATP, anabolic hormones practices. To improve neuromuscular conductivity, treatment by Dibazolum, prozeriny, an ambenonium chloride practices. Also use of other drugs, sessions of a light massage of extremities practices.
The disease can proceed from two to ten years, at the same time the forecast adverse. The patient perishes from paralysis of a respiratory center, exhaustion, intercurrent infections. If the person has also bulbar disturbances, then he will be able to live no more than two years.
Brain angiosclerosis (atherosclerosis of vessels of a brain) – an illness which meets rather often. In the course of its development there is a defeat of vessels of muscular and elastic type. At the same time the centers of lipidic deposits in an internal cover of vessels in a brain gradually form. They can be both single, and multiple. In development of an illness the vessel is gradually deformed and narrowed. Sometimes there is a full obliteration of a vessel. As a result, the chronic, slowly increasing insufficiency of supply of that body which eats through the brain vessel struck with a sclerosis is observed.
Most often symptoms of this disease, as well as defeat of vessels of the lower extremities, it is shown at people after twenty-year age, however the illness among aged people after 50 flyings is most widespread.
As a rule, display of a disease is caused by a hereditary factor. However the disease begins to develop under the influence of the factors stimulating its manifestations. This too frequent psychoemotional tension, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, alimentary obesity, hypodynamia, tobacco smoking.
Symptoms of an illness can be different and depend on where the illness and where process extends is localized. Diagnosis is carried out on the basis of existence of defeat of separate vessels.
The methods urged to suspend progress of a disease, and also to activate development of ways of roundabout inflow of blood are applied to treatment of an illness.
As therapy ensuring regular activity of muscles practices what special exercises are applied to. Special attention is paid also on food of the patient. Its diet has to contain equal amount of vegetable and animal fats as the weight increase at this illness is undesirable. If the person already has an excess weight, then it is necessary to get rid of it.
Besides, it is important to provide systematic treatment of diseases which accompany a sclerosis. It is impossible to allow sharp lowering of content of sugar in blood, and also lowerings of arterial pressure.
The subchondral sclerosis is an illness which affects joints. In development of a disease the articulate cartilage degenerates owing to what there are changes of a joint surface. Disease frequency considerably increases with age. The subchondral sclerosis is subdivided into primary and secondary forms. In the first case the strong overload of a backbone is an etiology, at the same time the illness develops in a healthy cartilage. In the second case the illness develops on already earlier injured cartilage which underwent negative impact owing to an injury, arthritis or influence of other disturbances.
The subchondral sclerosis of switching plates of bodies of vertebrae often occurs at development in the person of osteochondrosis, a spondylitis. It is important to carry out competent diagnosis and to appoint timely treatment of an illness. Different methods of therapy practice, but if the illness is too started, then the doctor can make the decision and on an operative measure.
Sclerosis of a prostate, lungs
Except the types of a sclerosis described above often the sclerosis of a prostate or lungs is diagnosed for patients. In the first case there is a gradual sclerous regeneration of a prostate which develops owing to inflammatory process. In development of this disease elasticity is lost and passability of a vesical and urethral segment is broken. It, in turn, conducts to a chronic ischuria. In most cases this disease is preceded by prostatitis of a chronic form. The illness rather often affects men of young age.
The sclerosis of lungs (pneumosclerosis) is a process of growth of connecting fabric in lungs that as a result leads to dysfunction of lungs. The illness often develops as a result of tuberculosis, acute and long pneumonias. The cardiogenic pneumosclerosis which is diagnosed for the people suffering from long developments of stagnation at damages of a myocardium, aorta at heart diseases is allocated.
The tuberous sclerosis is also called Burnevill's illness. At the name of an illness there is a Latin word tuber which designates "outgrowth", "tumor". It is a rare illness of genetic character at which development in different bodies high-quality educations appear. In view of very wide range of various symptoms the illness has polysystem character. If tumors arise in a brain, at the patient epilepsy can develop, decrease intelligence. At damage of internals there are most different symptoms of a disease. At initial establishment of the diagnosis emergence of characteristic new growths on an eyeground and integuments of the person matters.
As a rule, this illness is shown at children on the first year of life. They observe damage of skin, epileptic seizures and disturbances of intelligence. Often hydrocephaly also joins these signs. With age at the child attacks become more frequent, at the same time decrease in intelligence progresses. Patients with such diagnosis live no more than 25 years. After establishment of the diagnosis it appoints the symptomatic therapy directed generally to suspension of epileptic seizures. It is important to provide continuous process of treatment.
In popular speech there is also an expression "a senile sclerosis". It is applied, speaking about various disturbances of memory at elderly people. But actually there is no such illness, and expression, obviously, there is from the term "cerebral atherosclerosis", that is atherosclerosis of vessels of a brain at which dementia at people of advanced age is shown.