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February 10, 2014
Senile dementia (one more definition of this disease — senile dementia) is an illness which develops at the person at senile age owing to atrophic processes in a brain.
How senile dementia is shown?
The illness weak-mindedness is shown by gradual deterioration in mental activity. The person loses earlier specific features inherent in it. Gradually the disease progresses, passing into total weak-mindedness.
Initially his environment can even not distinguish weak-mindedness symptoms at the elderly person. The disease progresses imperceptibly, changes of the personality are shown gradually. Those traits of character which are shown by the person can initially be accepted to features which are characteristic of elderly people. The patient can show excessive avarice, conservatism in conversation, egoism, desire to teach others, etc. At the same time symptoms of weak-mindedness are expressed also by gradual deterioration in attention, thought processes. It is difficult for patient to analyze something, to draw adequate conclusions, to generalize information.
Gradually there is coarsening of the identity of the elderly person who suffers from senile dementia. Thereof process in the forefront so-called senile lines appear. All views become sample, interests are narrowed, callousness, malignancy, avarice is shown. Sometimes at the patient the expressed carelessness and complacency is on the contrary shown. In that case it can lose skills of moral behavior, not adhere to elementary moral standards. If at the same time the patient has a raised sexual inclination, he can find tendency to sexual perversions.
The patient with weak-mindedness not only shows bad traits of character which his relatives can take for the everyday age occurrences, but also sometimes suffers from dysmnesias. It loses ability to finding of new experience, gradually from memory some events disappear. But if what occurred quite recently the person forgets, then he remembers episodes from the remote past well. Thereof some patients can live past, including themselves young people. There are disturbances of temporary orientation: the patient can call the people surrounding with the names from the past, periodically get ready for a trip, etc.
At senile dementia usual external forms of behavior, as a rule, remain. There are usual gestures, features of a mimicry, the person continues to use expressions, usual for it. Therefore sometimes it seems to people around that treatment of weak-mindedness is not required as the person seems healthy.
Physical signs of senile dementia are initially expressed less. But over time emergence of a number of neurologic symptoms is noted: pupils are narrowed, muscles weaken, hands shiver, gait gains lines senile (small steps). The person grows thin, integuments become very dry. Functions of internals can be broken.
If the illness continues to progress, from time to time at the person the nonsense, hallucinations is shown. He can hear voices, to see visual objects, to feel crawling of "goosebumps" on a body. There are crazy ideas.
Specialists subdivide the acquired weak-mindedness into several subspecies depending on its signs and features. At total weak-mindedness at the person the criticism sharply decreases, reactions are lost, the personality is leveled, the increased mood prevails. Partial weak-mindedness is shown by dysmnesias and an emotional state, weakness, the fatigue which are mainly lowered by mood.
Epileptic weak-mindedness develops gradually and everything is shown by tendency to detail, vindictiveness, a pedantry and rancor. At the patient the outlook decreases, the speech becomes poor, sometimes at the person with such form of a disease symptoms of epilepsy provalyatsya.
Schizophrenic weak-mindedness – a state at which the patient shows isolation, emotional coldness. It breaks interrelations with world around, isolation from reality, activity reduction. At manifestation of such form of weak-mindedness of the patient it is necessary to hospitalize at once to suspend processes of change of the personality with treatment.
Weak-mindedness at children is shown by considerable lag of the child from his peers both in intellectual development, and in the course of adaptation to the outside world. Children depending on the reasons of manifestation can have an inborn weak-mindedness and acquired.
Why senile dementia is shown?
Exact origins of senile dementia are still unknown. A part in development of this disease is played by genetic predisposition to an illness. This theory is confirmed by existence of a large number of cases of "family weak-mindedness". The disease is shown owing to atrophic processes in a brain which progress against influence of certain factors. Often at the person weak-mindedness after a stroke which was very heavy develops.
As a rule, senile dementia develops at elderly people who constantly stay in a dejectedness, have bad conditions for life, weak immunity. Less often those who lead active lifestyle both in physical, and in the intellectual plan face an illness.
Weak-mindedness at children develops owing to the genetic reasons, adverse effects of environment, birth trauma, the postponed diseases. Sometimes the weak-mindedness reasons remain obscure with children.
How to get rid of senile dementia?
It is difficult to diagnose development of senile dementia in the person at the first stages of a disease. For this purpose in the course of diagnosis the specialist excludes a number of diseases of vessels, a brain, etc. If symptoms of an illness are brightly expressed, then diagnosis comes easy. To the patient it is carried out by brain KT or MPT, the special test for weak-mindedness allowing to define expressiveness of weak-mindedness at the person also practices.
Till today there are no effective methods of treatment of this disease. The characteristic of senile dementia demonstrates that in a brain of the person gradually there are irreversible changes. But nevertheless at the correct nosotrophy and use of some medicines which can facilitate certain symptoms of senile dementia treatment of senile dementia can be rather successful.
On a question what to do in the onset of the illness, doctors recommend to support such patients of the house and at the same time to try not to change conditions and features of their existence. Hospitalization of the patient at an initial stage of an illness, as a rule, worsens its state.
If to consider that the reasons of senile dementia are connected with passive way of life and lack of intellectual "gymnastics", then it is important to stimulate both intellectual, and physical activity of the patient, to try to acquaint him with feasible household chores.
Medicamentous drugs at senile dementia are used generally for removal of certain symptoms of a disease. Any psychotropic medicine for senile dementia is appointed only if at the patient the expressed sleep disorders, periodic concern, hallucinations and nonsense are noted. As a rule, the doctor appoints those medicines which do not cause in the person of weakness and other side effects. Reception of tranquilizers is sometimes appointed to night, treatment by some antidepressants, neuroleptics also practices in the minimum dosage. At an early stage of an illness it is possible to suspend process development by means of nootrop and some metabolic drugs. Their impact on some time slows down pathological process. How to treat weak-mindedness and what scheme of therapy at the same time to apply, only the doctor who treats the patient defines. All means for treatment are selected only in an individual order depending on the course of a disease.
Unfortunately, effective prevention of senile dementia is absent. To answer a question how to avoid this illness, it is possible only the general recommendations: it is necessary to conduct active and healthy life, to get rid of addictions.
If senile dementia at the patient is expressed progresses, the patient is placed in specialized medical institutions of residential type.
If the patient is in house conditions, his life has to be arranged and full. In the afternoon it needs to move as much as possible, the full-fledged dream is important at night. It is desirable to support a favorable emotional situation and to provide a qualitative nosotrophy.