And whether you know...
Spermitsida and barrier methods of contraception
November 21, 2012
People used vulval drugs and man's barrier methods for the purpose of protection from undesirable conception in the most ancient times. Today the barrier method of contraception provides protection against pregnancy development, interfering with hit of sperm in a vagina of the woman or a neck of uterus. Such contraceptives can be subdivided on mechanical and chemical. In the first case it is about vulval caps, diaphragms and condoms, in the second – about spermitsida. If two specified protection methods connect, then the speech already goes about the combined contraception. At the same time spermitsida can be combined with any of the specified barrier methods of protection. Also the fact that the barrier method of contraception allows to protect not only from conception, but also from diseases which indulge sexually is important. Besides, barrier methods of contraception have no negative effect on an organism of representatives of both floors, and their efficiency exceeds hormonal contraception which is applied by modern women.
The most often used method of barrier contraception of mechanical type is the condom. The condom for men is a thin cover which modern producers do of vinyl, latex, polyurethane. Condoms are today one of the most popular means which are widely used for the purpose of protection. Often in parallel with condoms also spermitsida are applied.
If to analyze responses which state those who prefer condoms then it is possible note a number of advantages. So, the fast effect of their use, a possibility of their combination to other methods of contraception is noted. Condoms do not exert impact on feeding of the child a breast, they are widely available, and their purchase does not require the recipe. Besides, an important point is existence of protection and against diseases which are transmitted sexually. The man, using a condom, is directly involved in planning of a family. Besides sometimes use of a condom allows to extend the period of an erection and to increase time until an ejaculation.
At the same time specialists note also some shortcomings of this method. It is rather low efficiency (according to medical statistics, from 3 to 14 pregnancies are the share every year of 100 women). Therefore, efficiency of condoms is much lower, than when using modern hormonal contraception. Use of condoms can affect sexual feelings, reducing them. Besides, manifestations of allergic reactions to spermitsida, latex, substances for greasing are sometimes noted.
Use of condoms in sex life is recommended to those who need immediate means for protection, to those who rather seldom has sexual contacts, and also to people who have more than one sexual partner.
And here it is not desirable for couples which have a constant debugged sex life to apply a condom. Also you should not apply this method of protection of subjects at whom the allergy to material of which do condoms is observed. If the woman has problems with health owing to which pregnancy becomes dangerous, then more reliable method of protection is also required.
Using a condom, both men, and women have to know all rules of its use accurately. It is important that the condom was put on only an eregirovanny penis. It is necessary to put on it before entering the member into a vagina. It is necessary to pick up a condom correctly: its main contours have to answer penis contours in a condition of an erection, and on the end there has to be a blank store for sperm. Before putting on a condom, it is necessary to shift as much as possible a prepuce and very accurately to pull it. It is not necessary to untwist a condom previously. In case of lack of the store on the end of a product, it is necessary to leave about 2 cm loose for collecting sperm.
It is important to consider that at use of a condom for greasing use of food fats, mineral oils or vaseline is not allowed. Substances which contain in them can break integrity of a condom. Special gels or spermitsida are suitable for greasing.
After sexual intercourse was finished, the member it is necessary to take, at the same time, holding a condom for its basis that sperm could not get into a vagina. Only one-time use of a product is allowed. If there is no confidence in quality of a condom, it cannot be used. In that case if in the course of sexual contact the condom tore, it is necessary to apply a method of an emergency contraception. However it can be done only as a last resort as such methods render essential hormonal load of the woman's organism.
Today in production in some countries there are already also female condoms. This product reminds the cylinder, it is made of polyurethane plastic. It should be entered into the woman's vagina before sexual intercourse. However in view of rather high cost of this contraceptive, and also inconvenience of its use widely female condom is not applied.
The diaphragm is a barrier method of contraception of mechanical type which most we accept for women who have regular sexual contacts with one constant partner. The diaphragm is made in the form of the dome having diameter of 50-105 mm of latex rubber. The dome basis – the spring from metal covered with rubber. When the woman enters a diaphragm into a vagina, the spring rests against its walls that provides closing of a neck of uterus. Therefore, spermatozoa cannot get to a cavity of the uterus. As a rule, the diaphragm is advised to apply, combining with spermicidal means. It not only increases effect of its use, but also allows to gain effect of greasing.
The main advantages of use of this barrier method of protection to the woman is the fast effect, lack of by-effects at her use. Besides, the diaphragm does not exert a negative impact on breastfeeding. The diaphragm is convenient also from the point of view of its use: it can be entered in 6 hours prior to sexual intercourse.
As shortcomings of this method it should be noted rather low efficiency of use (on average in a year from 6 to 20 pregnancies on 100 women are fixed). It is necessary to use a diaphragm at each sexual contact, at the same time before each contact it is necessary to enter the next dose of a spermitsid.
Before beginning use of a diaphragm, the woman has to pass surely survey at the gynecologist and carry out fitting of a diaphragm. At its use it is very important to follow all rules of hygiene as because of hit of an infection at extraction or introduction of a diaphragm there can be an infection of urinary tract. It is impossible to take a diaphragm 6 hours after end of the sexual act. Spermitsid is obligatory to use during each sexual intercourse.
There are also several accurate contraindications for use of a diaphragm. It is impossible to use this method that at whom the individual allergy to materials of which do diaphragms, and also on spermitsid is noted. Women who have chronic infectious diseases of urinary tract cannot apply a diaphragm, have anatomic anomalies of a vagina, suffer from pain in a crotch which is shown between sexual intercourses. The diaphragm is not used in a puerperal period, and also during periods or at bleeding during the period between monthly.
Use of a diaphragm is recommended to women who for a certain reason refuse use for the purpose of protection of intrauterine spirals or hormonal drugs. It is also reasonable to choose a diaphragm to the feeding mothers, women who infrequently have sexual intercourses.
It is not recommended to apply a diaphragm for the purpose of contraception to those women for whom possible pregnancy can be hazardous to health. It is important that the gynecologist was engaged in individual selection of a diaphragm only. In turn, the woman has to follow all rules of its use strictly.
Before entering means, it is necessary to empty a bladder, to carefully wash hands. To define integrity of a diaphragm, it is necessary to fill this product with water. If everything is normal, then in a cup of a diaphragm it is necessary to squeeze out a little gel or cream with spermitsidy.
It is possible to enter a diaphragm in different poses: or squating and having raised one leg on a chair, or lying on spin. Before introduction it is necessary to reduce together edges of a diaphragm and to enter it for a pubic bone deep into of a vagina. After introduction it is necessary to check by means of a finger whether the neck of uterus was closed completely. It is impossible to enter a diaphragm earlier, than in 6 hours prior to sexual contact. But at the same time kontartseptiv should not be inside more, than 24 hours. After use the diaphragm needs to be washed up carefully water with soap, to dry up. Means is stored in a box before the following use.
Kind of a diaphragm is the cap by which becomes covered only necks of uterus. As material for production of caps serves rubber. Considering that caps can be the different size, selection of such contraceptive is surely carried out by the gynecologist. Besides, before use of this method survey of the doctor surely is required.
As well as the diaphragm, a cap can be entered in 6 hours prior to sexual contact. If the woman cannot for certain reasons use a diaphragm, then the cap can be an acceptable contraceptive.
Speaking about shortcomings of caps, it is necessary to consider low contraceptive effect (according to the statistics, on 100 women from 6 to 20 pregnancies a year are fixed). Besides, the cap is inconveniently entered into a vagina and in parallel it is necessary to apply spermitsida.
Contraindications for use of this means same, as well as for use of a diaphragm. Recommendations of doctors about use of caps at certain categories of women are also similar. But in general today use both diaphragms, and caps practices rather seldom as there are more convenient methods of protection from undesirable conception.
Spermitsida are substances which directly influence sperm, depriving of activity spermatozoa or destroying them completely. Spermitsida is a barrier contraceptive of chemical type. As a rule, spermicidal cream or gel is used in a complex with other methods of protection from conception. Most often spermicidal greasing is used by those who prefer condoms or other barrier means.
Today many drugs-spertsmitsidov in the form of aerosols (Lutenurinum, Contraceptinum of T, Farmateks, Traceptinum), creams and gels (Lutenurinum, Contraceptinum of t, Farmateks, Traceptinum, Nonoksinol, etc.), vaginal tablets, candles are issued (Neo-Sampon, Farmateks, Patenteks-Oval, Nonoksinol, Sterilin , etc.). Also there are spermitsida in the form of films which are especially convenient in use.
In modern means of this type in structure there are two components: the basis and chemical which kills sperm. When using means the basis obvolakivayushche influences a neck of uterus that promotes reduction of contact between a neck of uterus and sperm. In the majority of modern spermitsid substance nonoksinol-9 which destructively influences a cellular membrane of spermatozoa is used. Preparaty-spermitsidy differ among themselves with generally different bases.
If candles from a spermitsidama are applied to protection, then between introduction of a candle and the beginning of sexual intercourse there have to pass about 15 minutes as candles are during this time dissolved. It is similarly necessary to work also with a film.
One more important point is that spermitsida actively influence against human immunodeficiency viruses. Therefore if there is a risk of infection of HIV, use of latex condoms and a spermitsid is preferable. Also when using this method protection against diseases which indulge sexually is effective.
If spermitsida are used correctly, then for the first year of use of this means pregnancy comes at 3 women from 100.
Use of this method of contraception is shown those at whom the sexual intercourses happen irregularly. These means are simple and available in use, it is easy to store them.
Also the fact that the woman can apply spermitsida is important, even without informing of it the sexual partner. Sometimes such drugs can be used for the purpose of increase of efficiency of an intrauterine spiral. Also in need of them use as an urgent contraceptive if during sexual intercourse the condom is torn. At a similar situation it is necessary to enter means as soon as possible.
It is impossible to apply this method if allergic reactions or intolerance of substances which enter in spermitsid are shown.
As side effects when using spermitsid development of irritation of skin of local character is possible.
These are the compact small pillows having the oval form which do of synthetic fiber and impregnate spermitsidy. This combined means influences by both a chemical, and mechanical method. The vulval sponge emits the chemical destroying spermatozoa and at the same time does not allow penetration of spermatozoa into a cavity of the uterus.
It is very easy to apply a vulval sponge. As well as other barrier methods, it is acceptable for use at a lactation. Besides, the vulval sponge shows antibacterial activity against some microorganisms which provoke diseases, sexually transmitted.
The lack of such method consists in some difficulties at extraction of a sponge. Besides, the rupture of a sponge in a vagina in the course of its withdrawal is possible. Also owing to existence of the absorbing effect the sponge can lead to manifestation of dryness of a vagina at the woman. Owing to use of this method the probability of display of fungal infections increases.
If for protection the barrier method is used, then it is necessary to apply the chosen kind of a contraceptive strictly at each sexual intercourse. Before sexual contact it is necessary to be convinced that the contraceptive on site and is entered correctly. At use of barrier mechanical methods the woman needs to know about signs of a syndrome of toxic shock which in rare instances develops when using such means. It is sharply shown high temperature, diarrhea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, a pharyngalgia, joints. In that case it is necessary, without postponing, to take a contraceptive.