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The xerophthalmus is a state which is shown if eyes are insufficiently humidified or greased with the lacrimal liquid. Such state is also called a syndrome of a dry eye, a dry eye. More often women suffer from a xerophthalmus.
How the xerophthalmus is shown?
Symptoms of a dry eye at the person are shown, first of all, by a strong feeling of irritation of eyes and a burning sensation. Can seem to the patient that in eyes there is a foreign subject — the so-called feeling of "sand in eyes" is shown. At the same time reddening of eyes can be observed and even to be felt dryness around eyes. Periodically at a syndrome of dry eyes the person has an emergence of the vague image. Sight can sometimes worsen to the termination of day, however continuous deterioration in sight is not observed. At dry eyes at the person the photophobia develops — at bright lighting unpleasant feelings appear.
At the person the lacrimal film is made by three layers. Generally the center water, and also salts and proteins contains. It is produced by the lacrimal glands which are located over an eye at the outer edge. When blinking the lacrimal liquid is distributed on an eye surface, in such a way an eye is moistened. The enveloping layer of the lacrimal film is made by lipids which emit meibomian glands. Thanks to this layer moisture does not evaporate, and the lacrimal film remains smooth. The conjunctiva covers an internal surface of a century and allocates mute mucous substance which also helps to be distributed the evenly lacrimal liquid.
A dry eye is more characteristic of people of advanced age. As a rule, elderly people are disturbed by dry eyes in the morning. But in recent years dryness in eyes — the characteristic phenomenon and for those young people who spend much time in front of the computer monitor. Especially those who spends at the screen many hours without breaks suffer from a dry eye. The reasons of a xerophthalmus can be and others — it the phenomenon often develops when carrying lenses, especially if the person with contact lenses is in the room with the conditioner, under a wind flow. At the same time dryness under eyes can be also shown.
Eyes of the person are humidified and greased thanks to existence of the lacrimal film which is formed by the lacrimal liquid. If the lacrimal film becomes thinner or its usual structure is broken, then the cornea of an eye dries up, and, as a result, the xerophthalmus develops. High sensitivity of eyes to different irritants — to a smoke, dry air, bright light is shown.
Why the xerophthalmus is shown?
The reasons for which normal process of moistening of eyes is broken can be the most different. Dry eyes are shown with age. The reason of this phenomenon — age reduction of release of the lacrimal liquid. As a result, it is not enough for sufficient moistening of eyes. There are also age changes of structure of the lacrimal film. As a result, any unfavorable conditions provoke manifestation of a dry eye at elderly people.
The syndrome of a dry eye at children and adults develops under the influence of some drugs. A number of medicines at long use cause a syndrome of a dry eye as a side effect. Signs of a dry eye can be shown after reception of diuretics, antidepressants, antihistamines, oral konratseptiv, beta-blockers, etc.
Sometimes the xerophthalmus is a symptom of the general diseases. Similar in certain cases occurs at a pseudorheumatism, a lupus erythematosus, Sjegren's syndrome, etc. At some people incomplete cover is observed by centuries of eyes at certain diseases. It can lead to a xerophthalmus too. One more reason of a syndrome of a dry eye — existence of damages a century, an outside surface of eyes which appeared owing to injuries, operations, an inflammation a century.
The separate extensive reason provoking a xerophthalmus — the unfavorable conditions leading to too intensive evaporation of tears. Dry eyes are observed at those who constantly stay in the conditions of too low air humidity, spends many hours in front of the TV, the monitor, a microscope. During the work with the specified devices of people blinks much more less than usually therefore the amount of the lacrimal liquid decreases. The xerophthalmus can disturb the person in windy weather.
In certain cases doctors cannot define the reason for which at people of young age the smaller amount of the lacrimal liquid is allocated and, respectively, the xerophthalmus is shown.
The syndrome of dry eyes seldom leads to complications, however all of them can develop over time. Emergence of inflammatory process of a conjunctiva or cornea is possible. At the heavy course of inflammatory process on a cornea yazvochka appear. If eyes constantly red, eye pain is felt or the resistant vision disorder develops, the patient should see at once behind consultation a doctor.
How to get rid of a xerophthalmus?
The ophthalmologist defines a xerophthalmus syndrome, being guided by existence of the main symptoms. But he can sometimes suspect that the xerophthalmus is symptoms of other disease. In that case to the patient additional inspections are appointed. There is a special test (Shirmer's test) by which it is possible to define a syndrome of dry eyes. Under a lower eyelid of the person the narrow strip of paper is inserted. It remains there for five minutes. Depending on degree of its namokaniye the doctor can define whether enough the lacrimal liquid is emitted.
Treatment of a dry eye is carried out after an exception of all general diseases which could cause such symptom. If at the patient the illness which provoked this symptom is defined, then treatment of a xerophthalmus is made in a complex of the general therapy of a disease. As a rule, treatment of a syndrome of a dry eye is carried out with use of drugs of an artificial tear and oculentums. In more hard cases making the decision how to treat a syndrome of a dry eye, the doctor can advise therapy more strong medicine for a syndrome of a dry eye. That fact as far as we will cure a syndrome of a dry eye, becomes clear directly in the course of carrying out therapy.
Drops from a xerophthalmus represent drugs of an artificial tear which, as a rule, perfectly remove all symptoms of this syndrome. It is possible to buy drops for eyes from dryness without recipe of the doctor. Initially these drugs need to be used often, practically each hour. But if the person notes that his health improves, then gradually the quantity of instillations decreases to 3-4 in day. Some people for elimination of symptoms of a disease should accept drops at a syndrome of a dry eye regularly.
If eye drops from a xerophthalmus cause irritation or allergic reactions, then it is necessary to replace drug with another. The drugs containing in structure a benzalkoniya hexachloride at long use can damage an eye cornea. If it is about long-term use of such drops, it is the best of all to replace them with drug as a part of which there is no hexachloride a benzalkoniya.
To remove irritations of eyes, use of oculentums which need to be applied on an eyelid before going to bed practices. Such ointments are useful if the person has a dry skin around eyes. If to use such ointments in the afternoon, they can provoke manifestation of an illegibility of sight and reduce effect of use of drops for eyes.
In the course of treatment drugs which activate process of production of the lacrimal liquid can be also used. In more hard cases the doctor appoints blocking of outflow of the lacrimal liquid a surgical method.
If the xerophthalmus is shown at the person using contact lenses, then it is necessary to report about this problem to the doctor who performs routine inspections. In certain cases replacement of lenses with contact lenses of other type or replacement of solution for leaving allows to solve this problem. Allows to reduce xerophthalmus symptoms when carrying lenses sometimes use of the moistening drops for eyes.
During the hours-long work at the computer not only the xerophthalmus, but also headaches, fatigue is shown. All this leads to noticeable decrease in working capacity and feeling of strong discomfort. To avoid aggravation of a problem, it is necessary to follow some rules which allow to reduce similar symptoms. Whenever possible, it is necessary to minimize work at the computer, at least, when it is possible. It is desirable to do each hour a break at least for 15 minutes. At this time it is the best of all to walk or make gymnastics for eyes.
Treatment of a dry eye folk remedies assumes use of lotions from infusions or broths of medicinal herbs. For example, usual wadded disks can be wetted in fresh tea leaves of strong tea and to put to eyes approximately for 20 minutes. Treatment by folk remedies assumes similar use of broth of a camomile. Not less useful folk remedies from a dry eye are special exercises. It is necessary to take a break in work and on 10 times to do the movements by eyes to the right-to the left, up-down. It is useful to narrow strongly eyes, to transfer a look from one corner to another. Also it is necessary to do such actions in a gymnastics complex on 10 times.
One more way to overcome symptoms of a dry eye — use of the usual burning candle. It is necessary to light a candle and to look for 10 minutes at the burning spark. By means of such weakening exercise it is possible to relax muscles and to overcome fatigue and tension.
Doctors advise surely to walk in the fresh air, it needs to be done several times a day and also if the strong tension of eyes is felt.