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Swine flu – that is the conditional name of an illness of people and animals which is provoked by certain influenza strains. This name gained the widest circulation in 2009 in mass media. A number of strains which are associated with developing of swine flu were found in influenza viruses of a serotype of C and subtypes of a serotype And. The so-called "Virus of swine flu" is a general name for all these strains.
This disease has a certain distribution among domestic pigs in many countries of the world. However the greatest danger is constituted by the fact that this virus can affect people, birds and some animals. Besides in the course of existence of a virus of swine flu there is its fast mutation.
The virus of swine flu can be transmitted from an animal to the person rather seldom. Respectively it is possible to use the pork made taking into account all rules of heat treatment, without being afraid of infection with swine flu. Very often by transfer of a virus from an animal to the person symptoms of swine flu at people are not shown, and the illness quite often is found only in view of existence of antibodies in human blood. When swine flu is transmitted to the person from an animal, the illness is called zoonotic swine flu. However according to statistical data, from twentieth years of the twentieth century among people who work directly with pigs about 50 cases of infection with swine flu are recorded.
A number of strains which provoke emergence of symptoms of swine flu at people found ability of transfer from the person to the person over time.
The first symptoms of swine flu at the person are similar to symptoms which are characteristic of acute respiratory diseases and "usual" flu. Transfer of a disease happens in the "standard" airborne way, and also by direct contact with the infected organisms. Precisely to define existence at the person of this virus, laboratory research — the analysis on swine flu is conducted.
In 2009 in the world strong flash of an influenza virus of a new strain which was given later the name "swine flu" was recorded. This flash was caused by a virus of the H1N1 subtype which has the maximum genetic similarity to a virus of swine flu. Till today precisely the origin of this virus is not known. However official information of the World organization for health protection of animals says that among pigs epidemic distribution of a virus of this strain is not established.
The specified virus influences as well as other strains of flu. The infection gets to a human body through an epithelium of mucous membranes of respiratory tracts in which there takes place replication and a reproduction of a virus. In development of a disease cells of a trachea and bronchial tubes are surprised, there is a process of a degeneration, necrosis and the subsequent rejection of cells which were struck.
Symptoms of swine flu
Usually the incubation interval of swine flu can proceed about three days. At the same time it is necessary to consider that the illness can proceed in an easy, severe and average form of weight. More difficult disease is noted at pregnant women, and also at children and old men. At representatives of these categories also small variations in duration of an incubation interval of swine flu are possible. Also heavier people who have the serious accompanying illnesses long ago have swine flu.
Symptoms of swine flu at the person are shown by a virusemia which proceeds about 10 −14 days. In a human body there are toxic and toksiko-allergic reactions in internals. Cardiovascular and nervous systems are most subject.
In the course of defeat of vascular system the vascular wall becomes more permeable and is exposed to fragility. Under the influence of a virus it is broken microcirculation of vascular system. In view of similar changes symptoms of swine flu are shown by frequent bleedings from a nose, emergence of a hemorrhage on skin and mucous membranes. Also as symptoms of swine flu people can have hemorrhages in internals and serious pathological changes in lungs. So, developing of hypostases of pulmonary fabric with hemorrhages in alveoluses is possible.
Because of reduction of a tone of vessels there is a venous dermahemia and mucous membranes, microcirculation is broken, there is a stagnation of blood in internals. In later terms of a course of a disease thrombosis of capillaries and veins is shown.
In view of similar changes hypersecretion of liquor and circulator frustration owing to which there is wet brain is observed and intracranial pressure increases.
The first symptoms of swine flu are shown similar to symptoms of flu usual: the person complains of a headache, he increases body temperature: generally temperature rises to 38 degrees, however in certain cases it can be higher – to 41 degrees. Also cold is shown, there can be symptoms of quinsy. The person suffers from the dry, barking cough, sometimes he is disturbed also by pains behind a breast. Besides, as symptoms of swine flu there can be vomiting, diarrhea, pain in a stomach. Mucous membranes of a throat and nose, as a rule, very dry. The patient complains of weakness and the general fatigue that demonstrates display of the general intoxication of an organism.
Diagnosis of swine flu
In the course of statement of the diagnosis doctors consider that symptoms of swine flu in the majority are similar to how flu which is provoked by other virus strains proceeds.
The current of this type of flu in general matches disease on condition of infection of the person with other influenza strains. Therefore, diagnosis of swine flu in view of similarity of symptoms of swine flu to signs of a number of diseases does diagnosis of an illness by more difficult process.
At swine flu the symptoms inherent in this disease are not shown. Therefore, syndromes of swine flu diagnose, turning attention to existence of two most accurately expressed symptoms: severe general intoxication of an organism and existence of damage of upper airways.
It is very important to carry out differential diagnosis of a disease in this case correctly. Detailed studying and the subsequent analysis of kliniko-epidemiological data becomes a basis of similar diagnosis. It will allow or to strengthen suspicions on existence of syndromes of swine flu, or to disprove such diagnosis.
Even during diagnosis of swine flu during epidemics when the disease has mass character, it is complicated, and during this period near the third patients who complain of syndromes of damage of airways, have illnesses which have not influenzal etiology.
Today it is accepted to distinguish two different types of diagnosis of flu — diagnosis clinical and diagnosis laboratory. Except careful clinical trial carrying out modern laboratory researches is necessary. So, the analysis on swine flu is carried out for allocation of a virus of swine flu, and also the subsequent definition like a virus, its seropodtip or shtammovy option of a virus.
At the moment PTsR (so-called polimerazny chain reaction) is considered the most informative way of diagnosis of swine flu. Laboratory research of smears from mucous membranes from a nose and a pharynx for the purpose of identification of RNA of a virus is for this purpose made. This diagnostic method rather exact is also carried out for rather short time.
As virologic methods of research cultivation of a virus of swine flu in a certain culture of cells is applied.
At serological diagnosis specific antibodies are defined in blood serum of the person. Special reactions are for this purpose applied.
Treatment of swine flu
How to treat swine flu, it is necessary to consult with the specialist without fail. At the slightest suspicions on existence of this infection it is necessary to see a doctor quickly.
Today treatment of swine flu is made by the same principles, as therapy of flu which is caused by other virus strains. If at patients very severe intoxication and disturbances of acid-base balance in an organism is observed, then treatment of swine flu includes a complex of the disintoxication and adjusting therapy. How to treat swine flu, the specialist defines individually in each separate case, however today is proved that especially effective impact on a virus of swine flu drug Oseltamivir possesses (Tami-Fl). If this means is absent, then for treatment of swine flu recommend drug use drug zanamivir (Relenza). If the analysis on swine flu confirms existence of this disease, then specified swine flu medicine is generally applied. But nevertheless it is necessary to consider that efficiency of treatment will the highest if begin therapy with the specified drugs in the first forty eight hours after manifestation of symptoms of an illness.
If little signs of swine flu at the person are shown, then as swine flu medicine arbidol, or other antiviral drugs used at treatment of seasonal flu is quite often used. The most expressed effect of use of arbidol to be shown on condition of the beginning of therapy in the first five days after an onset of the illness. Duration of therapy should not make less than one week.
To patients for whom flu of average or heavy degree is diagnosed the course of treatment which purpose – not to allow display of primary viral pneumonia is appointed. It is also important to apply all measures directed to prevention of display of a consecutive bacterial infection which quite often leads to pneumonia.
Syndromes of swine flu also treat by means of the drugs having symptomatic effect. So, in this case drugs with febrifugal influence are actual (generally drugs which contain an ibuprofen and paracetamol). Aspirinosoderzhashchy drugs as swine flu medicine do not recommend in view of existence of risk of manifestation of a syndrome of Ray.
Besides, treatment of swine flu includes purpose of polyvitamins, and drugs with antihistaminic action are in certain cases reasonable. If accession of a consecutive bacterial infection takes place, then in the course of treatment antibiotics of a wide range of influence are used.
It is very important to realize, than swine flu is dangerous. Each person should ask urgently for acute management in case of the following symptoms of swine flu: existence of strong respiratory insufficiency, a problem in functioning of cardiovascular system, signs of oppression of brain activity, an asthma, a faint, skin cyanosis, pain in breasts, lowering of blood pressure.
If for three days at the patient body temperature does not decrease, then it is also necessary not to hesitate with the address to the doctor.
Prevention of swine flu
Realizing, than swine flu is dangerous, it is necessary to take all measures not to allow developing of this disease. The most efficient method of prevention is the swine flu vaccine. However as elementary prevention of swine flu it is worth conforming to the basic rules of protection against viral infections. First of all, the gauze bandage which is recommended to be carried in the period of epidemic will be effective protection against distribution of a virus. It is necessary to carry such bandage at contacts with people constantly, at the same time changing it each several hours on new or previously prostiranny and ironed.
Whenever possible during the adverse period it is necessary to avoid those places where big accumulation of people is observed. The most unsafe places from the point of view of risk of infection with swine flu – public transport, shops, offices, etc. rooms in which there are many people need to be aired regularly. With people who have obviously expressed signs of existence of a respiratory infection it is better not to contact or be extremely careful during similar contact.
In the period of epidemic as prevention of swine flu notable value has regular carrying out wet cleaning in rooms. Such cleaning needs to be done several times a day. During the adverse period it is necessary to wash very often hands, and, it is obligatory with soap use.
Prevention of swine flu also includes ensuring balanced healthy diet, a full-fledged dream, sufficient physical activity.
To provide the general strengthening of immunity, specialists recommend to accept vitamin C, and also drugs adaptogens which can positively influence body resistance. It eleuterokokk, tincture of a rhodiola pink, alpha interferon (nose ointment). The use of enough fruit and vegetables will also provide an organism with necessary amount of vitamins.
It is also important to consider that the virus of swine flu perishes under the influence of high temperatures. Therefore, heat treatment (at a temperature over 70 degrees) guarantees death of a virus. However it is necessary to remember that the virus of swine flu can be transmitted by animals. Therefore special attention should be paid on contact with animals and meat after their face. It is not necessary to be engaged in a razdelyvaniye of carcasses of sick animals at all.Swine
In view of the fact that physicians of the whole world understand for a long time, than swine flu is dangerous, today specialists actively work on improvement of a vaccine against swine flu. Every year improvement of a vaccine against swine flu taking into account the A/H1N1 virus mutation is made.
It is important to understand that vaccination from swine flu done with use of a usual vaccine will not take the necessary effect. On the contrary, it can weaken immunity of the person noticeably.
Today specific vaccines which are applied to production of inoculations from swine flu are already developed. The most known vaccines applied in our country are swine flu vaccines pandemriks (producer — the Glaxosmithkline company), a fosetria (producer — the Novartis company), and also a swine flu vaccine monogrippol, created by domestic producers. There are vaccines in the form of a traditional inoculation and in the form of nasal spray.
In the period of epidemic the swine flu vaccine, first of all, has to be entered to pregnant women, and also those who is engaged in care of the kid to six-months age (as to mothers, and nyanm). The swine flu inoculation does not become to children to six-months age. Vaccination is not less important for medical personnel, workers of acute management, people who have bronchial asthma and, respectively, have higher risk of manifestation of complications after flu.
Researches which were conducted proved that modern swine flu vaccines do not cause noticeable by-effects. Often in the place where the injection was made, the redness and some morbidity is observed, in more exceptional cases of people after an inoculation can feel a headache or manifestation of fatigue, even less often body temperature increases a little.
It is necessary to consider that the vaccine is made with use of eggs, therefore, people with an allergy to this product cannot drive it.
Complications of swine flu
Complications after swine flu are shown depending on a number of factors. Weight of an infection, age of the patient, immunity of the person, and also timeliness and efficiency of medical care is important. Swine flu proceeds at elderly patients heavier, and also at children of younger school age.
At the correct and timely treatment of swine flu the forecast will be favorable. However rather often this disease provokes a number of complications which can exert a negative impact on the general state of health of the person. So, frequent complication is the exacerbation of chronic diseases of cardiovascular system. The last is especially often noted at elderly people. Also stenokardichesky pains are sometimes shown, and in the first days of an illness arterial pressure increases. Also at elderly people who have chronic diseases of respiratory system the mixed cardiovascular and respiratory insufficiency can be shown.
The acute pneumonia becomes one more heavy complication of swine flu sometimes. The majority of acute pneumonias which arise as complication of swine flu have a bacterial origin. Severe forms of pneumonia provoke pathogenic staphylococcus which rezistentna to a large number of often applied antibiotics.
Section: Infectious diseases