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Tachycardia is a state of which noticeable increase of heartbeat is characteristic. This phenomenon can have any genesis. It is considered to be that at the heart rate making 100 beats per minute and more at the patient tachycardia takes place. The correct heart rhythm is characteristic of a condition of tachycardia: duration between cordial reductions uniform. If tachycardia at the person develops suddenly, and later the attack comes to an end not less unexpectedly, then in this case the state is designated as a Bouveret's disease. For understanding what is tachycardia and what states should be differentiated, exists classification on several types of a disease.
Types of tachycardia
First of all, tachycardia is subdivided on physiological and pathological. Displays of physiological tachycardia can arise at people at whom cardiovascular system functions without pathologies. In this case different factors of environment contribute to display of tachycardia. It can be sharp change of provision of a tel, sports, stay in uncharacteristic climatic conditions. Also the heart rhythm becomes frequent after an overeating and the use of exciting drinks, owing to treatment by some drugs.
Pathological tachycardia develops as a result of diseases of cardiovascular system. Also this state arises owing to earlier postponed acute illnesses.
It is accepted to distinguish two types of tachycardia directly relating to disturbances in cardiac performance (arrhythmia): tachycardia supraventricular and ventricular.
Supraventricular tachycardia is the or independent illness arising in view of pathologies in a heart structure or an effect of other diseases which course negatively affected cardiac performance. At this form of tachycardia of heart the wrong heart rhythm forms not higher than the level of ventricles, that is at the level of auricles.
At ventricular tachycardia the source of increase of a rhythm is already in ventricles. This state is considered as rather serious violation in cardiac performance.
Ventricular tachycardia is sometimes shown as anomaly of inborn character and a consequence of the diseases affecting a cardiac muscle. Most often tachycardia of this form is an effect of ischemia of heart or a cardiomyopathy. Displays of ventricular tachycardia constitute danger to the patient because of a possibility of failure of a cordial rhythm and as consequences, a possible sudden cardiac standstill.
Sinus tachycardia is a state at which increase of a cordial rhythm happens because of external manifestations. So, it can be a severe stress, exercise stresses, etc. In this case it is very important to know what origin of such state. The cause needs to be removed first of all therefore at displays of sinus tachycardia complex inspection of an organism is required.
At sinus tachycardia heart rate increases from 90 to 150-180 in a minute, at the same time the correct sinoatrial rate remains.
The reason of this state — increase of automatism of a sinuatrial node which is the main pacemaker. If the person is completely healthy, then such phenomenon can arise as a result of strong exercise or emotional stresses.
Distinguish several types of sinus tachycardia. Pharmacological sinus tachycardia arises as a result of influence on a sinus node of adrenaline, noradrenaline, Isoproterenolum, alcohol, caffeine, nicotine and some other substances. It is allocated also adequate and inadequate forms of pathological sinus tachycardia. The adequate form of tachycardia arises as a result of increase of body temperature, arterial hypertension, anemia, an anoxemia, a thyrotoxicosis. Permanent symptomatic increase in frequency of a sinoatrial rate is characteristic of an inadequate form of sinus tachycardia. The cordial rhythm at the same time makes more than 100 in a minute as at rest, and at the smallest exercise stress. Such state lasts for, at least, three months without the visible reasons.
The inadequate form of sinus tachycardia meets rather seldom and is a little studied illness. As a rule, the illness arises at people of young age, is in most cases shown at women. Patients complain of an asthma, permanent heartbeat, feeling of constant weakness and dizziness.
It is necessary to treat sinus tachycardia only in a case manifestation of its inadequate form.
To understand what is tachycardia, it is important to consider that tachycardia of heart is shown because of many and different reasons. So, the similar state can arise as natural reaction of a human body to emotional loading and too strong physical work. Also tachycardia can accompany fervescence, smoking, the use of high doses of alcoholic beverages. Heartbeat becomes more frequent and in case of sharp lowering of arterial pressure, at anemia and, respectively, reduction of level of hemoglobin, as a result of development of malignant tumors, infections of purulent character, the increased function of a thyroid gland. Also tachycardia can arise as a result of treatment by some medical supplies.
There are also tachycardias arising in view of existence of pathology of a cardiac muscle or in view of disturbances in the course of electric conductivity of heart. Tachycardia of heart is the first sign of a cordial decompensation.
Also similar state is a consequence of shock or a collapse (it can be an unconscious state, bleeding, etc.) as result of a reflex on lowering of blood pressure.
Tendency to tachycardia is a characteristic symptom at the people sick with vegeto-vascular dystonia. As a rule, in this case it is patients of young age. A cardiopalmus is observed also at patients with neurosises.
Symptoms of tachycardia are shown, first of all, by the sharp increase of a rhythm of heartbeat having pristupoobrazny character. At the same time the heart rhythm remains accurate and correct. The similar phenomenon can begin very sharply, and later suddenly stop. Besides, symptoms of tachycardia include manifestation of the general weakness, dizziness attacks. The person can feel faintness flow, and also feeling of shortage of air. In the course of an attack all described symptoms of tachycardia are expressed brightly, at the same time sometimes the patient has a clear feeling of fear. So at sudden manifestation of the designated signs it is necessary to take all measures to relax and calm down.
Diagnosis of tachycardia
At diagnosis of tachycardia it is important to begin work with the patient with his careful poll. The doctor surely listens to the patient by means of a stethoscope, defining existence of noise at it in heart. For the correct statement of the diagnosis it is important to specialist to define in this connection there is tachycardia, the attack what is the time lasts whether suddenly it is shown.
The following important step in the course of diagnosis is the electrocardiography. Thanks to this method it is possible to register electric fields which are formed at cardiac performance. In order that the tachycardia attack at the patient was registered, daily monitoring of an ECG is sometimes used. This research is continuous record of the electrocardiogram which to last for days. At the same time the patient is engaged in usual things and carries special portable adaptation. The dl of definition of the reason for which at the patient tachycardia is shown the doctor often appoints carrying out blood tests, an echocardiography, research of a thorax by means of a X-ray.
Treatment of tachycardia
At treatment of tachycardia it is important to consider the reasons for which this state, and also tachycardia type develops. There is a number of states at which treatment of tachycardia is not required in general. To normalize heartbeat, good rest, change of way of life with more correct is necessary. Often it is just necessary for the person will calm down.
However quite often medicamentous therapy of tachycardia nevertheless is necessary. The specialist has to make decisions on acceptance of any medicines only after the patient passes careful inspection. Therefore if tachycardia is shown without a certain reason, it is necessary to see a doctor at once.
Treatment of tachycardia is directed to therapy of diseases which become the reason of its emergence. In most cases tachycardia is a consequence of disturbances in endocrine system, a vegetative nervous system, and also a number of cardiovascular illnesses.
To prevent a tachycardia attack, antiarrhytmic drugs are often used. However similar means can become the reason of a number of side effects.
If at the patient the pronounced attack of tachycardia is shown, it is recommended to stop exercise stresses at once. It is possible to use the sedative calming drugs which were appointed by the attending physician. There are also some methods which help to eliminate tachycardia attacks independently. So, there are special techniques of breath holding at which the patient has to press a little fingers on eyeballs. Nonconventional techniques, for example, system of breath on a way of the Ayurveda are in certain cases effective.
Tachycardia at pregnancy
Often women at whom problems with work of cardiovascular system were not observed earlier have tachycardia attacks during pregnancy. Tachycardia at pregnancy is a consequence of changes in a female organism. To understand what is tachycardia in this case, it is important to consider that in the course of incubation of the child all organism in general functions with double loading.
However direct origins of tachycardia are rather diverse and still are exposed to studying of specialists. So, as the main factor provoking a cardiopalmus it is necessary to consider the high level of hormones which show sympathomimetic activity and, as a result, increase the frequency of reductions of heart. Among other factors because of which there is tachycardia at pregnancy, it should be noted increase in weight of the pregnant woman, a high metabolic rate, insufficient quantity of minerals and vitamins, important for an organism, anemia, pressure decline. Negative changes of water and electrolytic balance happen a consequence of heavy toxicosis often that can also provoke periodic attacks of tachycardia. Heart shifts owing to anatomic changes in an organism, the use of a number of drugs can affect a condition of a cardiac muscle and provoke tachycardia.
Tachycardia at pregnant women it is accepted to call a state when ChSS at rest makes more than 90 beats per minute. At the same time the woman does not feel pain. The attack stops independently. However at frequent increase of ChSS do120 and more blows and the accompanying unpleasant symptoms the woman has to is charming to address specialists and to pass inspections. Carrying out an ECG is in this situation appointed, as additional researches EhoKG, research of hormones of a thyroid gland is used.
Therapy of tachycardia at pregnancy means reception of vegetable sedatives, and also vitamins, drugs with the content of potassium, magnesium. It is important to correct a water balance, to prevent anemia.
Prevention of tachycardia
To avoid manifestation of attacks of tachycardia, it is important to see, first of all, in time a doctor and to treat the diseases causing this state. At the first manifestations of the accelerated heartbeat it is necessary to take care of adequate and good rest. It is not less important to stop abuse of the products containing caffeine, alcohol. Strong coffee and tea can be replaced with herbal teas, using herbs which influence sedatively.
It is not necessary to use many sweets, fat food, at the same time it is important to observe the principles of healthy food. Parosizmalny tachycardia often arises also as a result of reception of stimulators, dietary tablets. Not less important principle of prevention of tachycardia is protection against constant stresses, a resistant emotional state.
Effective method of prevention of a cardiopalmus is reception of a microelement magnesium which regulates effects of calcium in muscle cells of heart. Will be a consequence of such influence rhythmical reduction and relaxation of a cardiac muscle. One more element important for the correct cardiac performance, potassium is considered.
Active lifestyle and fast reasonable exercise stresses stimulate cardiac performance, and also increase resistance of an organism to release of excess of adrenaline. As a result, irritability decreases and the emotional background is stabilized.
Tachycardia attacks happen less often at those people who spend in the fresh air regularly much time. Important every day, at least, half an hour to walk on the street.