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February 25, 2012
Toxicosis is a morbid condition of an organism which arises as a result of impact on it of exogenous toxins or harmful substances of an endogenous origin.
Manifestation of disorders of neurologic character, disturbances of a peripheral blood-groove, tachycardia, skin discoloration, lowering of arterial pressure is characteristic of a condition of toxicosis. In view of existence of dysfunction of a digestive tract toxicosis is shown by nausea, a diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia. At toxicosis there is a continuous damage of kidneys and a liver. The water and electrolytic exchange is broken, a number of deviations in an acid-base state is observed.
Types of toxicosis
It is accepted to distinguish several different types of toxicosis. So, sharp increase of body temperature is characteristic of toxicosis with acute adrenal insufficiency which is most often shown at a meningococcemia – it can make up to 39-40 degrees. To skin at the person turns pale, concern signs are shown. On skin reddish spots of different shades can act. Later on integuments polymorphic rash develops. After a while the person is overcome by the general slackness, block, disorders of breath, the sopor later passing into a coma can develop further. At this type of toxicosis at the person the early decompensation of blood circulation is shown.
At toxicosis with a liver failure which develops owing to influence of viruses initial degree of an illness passes as a SARS or a gastrointestinal infection. This disease is most often shown at children to three-year age. As symptoms often there are attacks of pernicious vomiting, increase of a tone of muscles, spasms. A bit later also neurologic symptoms are shown: slackness, confusion of consciousness, spasm, too frequent and deep breath. In several hours the coma can develop. Gradually tachycardia accrues, body temperature can rise.
At toxicosis with an acute renal failure the characteristic triad of symptoms is observed: the acute renal failure, the acute acquired hemolitic anemia and thrombocytopenia is shown. This form of toxicosis can be shown as a result of respiratory and viral and gastroviral infections, vaccination. Among other symptoms of this state it should be noted existence of puffiness on a face, vomitings, abdominal pains, a diarrhea, an oliguria. Later functions of cardiovascular system are considerably broken, initially lowered arterial pressure gradually increases. Available also symptoms of dehydration and symptoms of a gastroenteritis. It is easy to determine an illness by results of blood test.
Toxicosis of pregnant women
Toxicosis of pregnant women is the whole complex of changes of pathological character in an organism of the pregnant woman. As a rule, such changes take place in the first half of pregnancy. Most often vomiting happens the main display of early toxicosis. The similar state arises also at completely healthy women, however at those who had diseases of a gall bladder and pancreas earlier, display of toxicosis is expressed stronger, than at the healthy person. In development and progressing of toxicosis of pregnant women in a female organism happen disturbances in carbohydrate, fatty, proteinaceous, a water salt metabolism. Later exhaustion can be shown, decrease weight. At the same time the patient continues to lose liquid. Sometimes also manifestation of noticeable dystrophic changes in a number of internals, and also in the central nervous system is possible.
Displays of toxicosis of pregnant women in that or other degree are characteristic approximately of 90% of women. Toxicosis can be shown by small, short-term vomiting and morning or evening nausea. The similar state proceeds approximately till thirteenth week of pregnancy. In this case the speech about pathology does not go.
To define weight of a condition of the pregnant woman, classification of stages of vomiting is applied. So, at the first stage the woman generally feels well, and attacks of vomiting happen not more often than five times a day. As a rule, vomiting is reaction to food or to a smell. At the second stage of toxicosis of pregnant women vomiting occurs more often – to ten times a day. The woman quickly loses weight, she shows periodic tachycardia, in urine acetone sometimes appears. At the third stage of toxicosis of pregnant women vomiting can arise to 25 times a day, the woman feels extremely badly. At the same time vomiting can be shown from the smallest movements. Pulse becomes frequent to 120 beats per minute, also body temperature can increase. In urine find acetone, also high content of creatine takes place.
Treatment of toxicosis of pregnant women
Treatment of toxicosis of pregnant women is in most cases made on an outpatient basis, at the same time it is very important to control dynamics of body weight of the woman constantly. However at display of vomiting of the second and third stage it is necessary to treat her already in the conditions of a hospital. Diagnosis of severity of toxicosis is made by results of blood test and urine, by carrying out the electrocardiogram, and also by means of detailed poll of the patient.
It is important to approach treatment of early toxicosis in a complex. Sometimes the doctor appoints to the woman administration of drugs, the influencing the central nervous system, vitamins, antihistaminic drugs. Besides, the woman has to observe the mode ordered by the doctor. Sometimes the serious condition is the indication to abortion: similar is possible at very serious condition and it is bad health of the woman, at inefficiency of the methods offered by the doctor for the next few 6-12 hours, and also at development of acute dystrophy of a liver. As a rule, all displays of toxicosis of pregnant women stop at once after the delivery or abortion.
Reasons of toxicosis of pregnant women
During pregnancy is a basic reason of manifestation of symptoms of toxicosis disturbances of adaptation of an organism to this state, and also manifestation of pathological reaction of an organism to new situation. As basic reasons which lead to display of toxicosis specialists designate a number of disturbances in the woman's organism. These are inflammatory processes in generative organs, a uterus; pathology in development of a uterus, in a condition of an endometria; endocrine disturbances. Also toxicosis can be shown as a result of changes in TsNS which do not allow to process correctly the impulses proceeding from fetal egg. Similar changes provoke disturbance of physiological changes of hemadens, exchange processes, works of a number of systems of an organism. In view of disturbance of exchange processes of fabrics the intermediate products causing organism toxicosis generally get to blood.
More often toxicosis of pregnant women is shown at women who had serious diseases earlier, incorrectly eat, overtire, do not observe fully the mode of rest and a dream.
Classification of toxicosis of pregnant women
The most correct and considers today division of toxicoses into two groups expedient. So, in the first half of pregnancy early toxicosis, in the second half — late toxicosis is shown. As a rule, late toxicosis arises in the last several months of incubation of the child. In turn, early toxicosis is subdivided into vomiting of pregnant women, excessive vomiting, a ptyalism. Late toxicosis can be shown as a hydrops gravidarum, a neuropathy, a condition of a preeclampsia and an eclampsia.
Also more rare forms of toxicoses to which carry bronchial asthma, a dermatosis, a tetany, jaundice are sometimes shown. The similar phenomena arise during any period of pregnancy.
At early toxicosis which, as a rule, arises in the first trimester of pregnancy various manifestations take place. Symptoms of this state are weakness, strong hypersalivation, unwillingness is, changes in taste. Vomiting provokes dehydration, the woman grows thin, at it skin droops. Pulse becomes more frequent, the blood pressure decreases.
The woman has to tell about all symptoms to the treating gynecologist surely. It is regularly important to be weighed to control whether there are no jumps in weight in that or other party.
At late toxicosis more serious symptoms are shown. As a rule, this state arises approximately on the twentieth week after conception and proceeds up to day of childbirth. In this case nausea is practically not shown, however the woman has hypostases of extremities, and later – persons. Sometimes hypostases arise on all body. Level of arterial pressure rises, and it is not possible to lower it even with the help of medicines. If in time not to ask for medical assistance, late toxicosis of pregnant women can become the reason of serious damage of internals. At the same time at the woman a number of symptoms which negatively influence her general vitality will be observed: dizziness and a headache, problems with hearing and sight are possible. A condition of an eclampsia — degree of late toxicosis is heaviest. In this case the woman faints, she begins spasms. The similar state can become the reason even of a lethal outcome as consequences of a hematencephalon, acute respiratory, renal, heart failure. Also there is a high probability of placental detachment.
It is necessary to treat late toxicosis only in a hospital, observing a high bed rest and implementing all recommendations of the doctor. It is important to exclude stresses, to eat a minimum of salty food, to accept drugs, the reducing ABP. Sometimes at late toxicosis administration of proteinaceous drugs is appointed pregnant.
But in especially hard cases at inefficiency of treatment the eclampsia can be prevented, having only interrupted pregnancy.
Prevention of toxicosis of pregnant women
It is necessary to remember prevention of toxicosis even before conception. For this purpose it is necessary to approach pregnancy planning competently: to get rid of excess weight, to adhere to a diet with the small content of fats, to lead active lifestyle that physical shape was as much as possible perfect. It is proved that physical shape directly influences display of toxicosis: what feels also more comfortably what better the woman, that smaller risk of developing of toxicosis of pregnant women looks.
On the first weeks of pregnancy it is necessary to pass inspection and to get all necessary advice at the doctor. It is necessary to accept the vitamin complexes containing B6 vitamin and vitamin C, to minimize the content of salt in an everyday diet, to use not less than 75 grams of protein every day. The women feeling the beginning of development of toxicosis have to enter even more protein into a diet.
Is to the pregnant woman follows often, but at the same time portions have to be rather small. The food should not be strongly hot. It is not less important to drink a lot of liquid every day: mint or green tea with a lemon, dogrose broth helps to prevent nausea and vomiting.
If nausea nevertheless overcomes, it is always necessary to carry with itself candies, croutons, fruit which small portion will help to suspend nausea. That toxicosis did not progress, the full-fledged dream and day rest is very important. At the same time it is desirable to have a rest in the aired, cool room.
Physical exercises also help to cope with nausea attacks. However it is possible to do only easy exercises or to practice yoga. But even the attending physician has to approve an easy exercise stress surely.
Future mothers have to avoid passive smoking which can also provoke development of toxicosis.
For prevention of late toxicosis in the second half of pregnancy it is necessary to reduce several the use of liquid for avoiding of its delay in fabrics and, as a result, developing of hypostases. In a diet the low-fat proteinaceous food, vegetables, grain has to prevail. It is necessary to sleep not less than nine hours a day. The pregnant woman on late terms has to watch weight carefully. Too strong and sharp increase can be a signal of the beginning of toxicosis.