Thrombophlebitis is the inflammatory process of acuity arising in vein walls. At the same time in a gleam of a vein blood clot is formed.

At development of this disease many different factors matter. So, development of a troboflebit in the person directly depends on delay of a blood-groove and change of composition of blood, existence of disturbance in the course of a blood coagulation, presence of damages or diseases of a vascular wall, existence of allergies, infections, neurotrophic and endocrine frustration.

Most often patients for whom the varicosity, infectious diseases of purulent character, a tumor, illnesses of cardiovascular system is earlier diagnosed have thrombophlebitis. Also thrombophlebitis can turn out to be consequence of surgeries, especially if those are made on bodies of a small pelvis, difficult delivery, situations at which long catheterization of veins was made. This illness arises at those who had injuries, wounds, introduction of antibiotics and the concentrated drugs intravenously earlier.

Thrombophlebitis symptoms

It is accepted to distinguish thrombophlebitis acute, subacute, and also chronic. If to consider nature of process, then specialists define purulent and not purulent thrombophlebitis.

Depending on that, thrombophlebitis is localized where exactly, also the clinical picture of an illness, and also its symptoms varies. So, the disease is divided into two types: thrombophlebitis of superficial veins (in most cases — varicose) and thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities (thrombophlebitis of deep veins).

At patients with acute thrombophlebitis of superficial veins of the lower extremities the illness develops, generally in the varicose changed vein. Most often there is a defeat of a big saphena. At the same time the person feels acute pains of the pulling character on the course of the thrombosed vein. Sometimes at the patient at an acute state body temperature increases, making up to 37,5 — 38 °C. In the affected vein the dermahemia, a local hyperemia, and also feeling of morbidity at a palpation is observed. In certain cases the ascending thrombophlebitis of a big saphena and, as a result, threat of a thromboembolism of pulmonary arteries can develop.

At people with acute thrombophlebitis of deep veins of a shin clinical symptoms depend on what localization and extent of blood clot, and also the number of veins, which were affected by disease process. Generally the illness begins sharply: in gastrocnemius muscles there is pain, feeling of a raspiraniye of a shin. This feeling is especially aggravated if to lower a shin down. At the patient raises body temperatures. There are hypostases in distal departments of a shin, the subtle cyanochroic shade of skin is shown. Several days later on shins, a stomach, hips there is noticeable a network of the superficial veins looking expanded. After the patient bends foot in back situation, sharp pain arises in gastrocnemius muscles. Also for thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities there is pain during a palpation of a gastrocnemius muscle. At diagnosis of deep thrombophlebitis the specialist pays attention to existence of the following precursory symptoms. It is Mozes's symptom (manifestation of morbidity in the course of squeezing of a shin in the perednezadny direction and lack of pain if to squeeze a shin on each side); Opitsa-Ramines's symptom (display of sharp pain on the course of veins of a shin after pressure in a cuff of the sphygmomanometer imposed above a knee increases to 40 — 45 mm of mercury.; Lovenberg's syndrome (display of sharp pain on the course of veins of a shin after pressure in a cuff of the sphygmomanometer imposed on an average third of a shin increases to 60 — 150 mm of mercury).

In case of development of thrombophlebitis in a femoral vein characteristic signs of disturbance of venous outflow are expressed less strongly. Pain in this case arises about hip adductors. During survey at this illness existence of small hypostasis and expansion of saphenas is found. At thrombophlebitis of the general femoral vein there is a sharp scelalgia, its expressed hypostasis and display of cyanosis. At the patient also the fever, the increased body temperature is shown. After a while there are noticeable expanded superficial veins at the top of a hip, in a groin.

The heaviest disease is shown at thrombophlebitis of an iliofemoral segment of the main vein. Initially the person feels pain in a waist and a sacrum, and also in a lower part of a stomach on the struck party. At such state there is a febricula, body temperature slightly increases. If at the patient the floating blood clot is formed, then the thromboembolism of pulmonary arteries will be the main sign of it. If full occlusion of an ileal vein takes place, sharp pain is shown in a groin, on all extremity the severe hypostasis passing to area of buttocks and a groin, and also to an abdominal wall extends. At first swelled rather soft, but after a while it hardens and is condensed. At the same time skin color changes: it becomes white or violet, with the expressed venous drawing. Body temperature at the patient increases up to 38-39 °C, strong slackness, a fever, symptoms of intoxication of an organism is shown.

As serious complication of thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities sometimes there is a thromboembolism of pulmonary arteries.

If acute thrombophlebitis passes in purulent, on the course of the thrombosed vein multiple abscesses develop. Extremity phlegmon can turn out to be consequence of such pathology.

At chronic thrombophlebitis disease long: the illness can last even several years.

Diagnosis of thrombophlebitis

тромбофлебитAs a rule, statement of the diagnosis does not cause "thrombophlebitis" in specialists of difficulties. In the course of diagnosis special tool methods of research are used. It is easy to establish the diagnosis, applying a reovazografiya or ultrasonic doppler sonography. The exact and detailed diagnosis can be established, using a method of an ultrasonic duplex angioskanirovaniye with color coding of a blood-groove. Detailed information on a condition of veins, existence of trombotichesky masses is result of such research, and also to learn precisely about character of blood clot. Laboratory diagnosis in this case is not an informative method. So, blood test allows to define only moderately expressed signs of inflammatory process.

Treatment of thrombophlebitis

Radical treatment of thrombophlebitis consists in surgical intervention. Similar operation is the reliable method protecting from distribution of thrombosis in the future and also prevents complications of a disease and its recurrence. If the disease develops in not changed veins earlier, also use of conservative methods of therapy of thrombophlebitis is possible. However at development of the ascending thrombophlebitis of a big and small saphena of the progressing type the immediate surgery is performed to warn a deep vein thrombosis, and also to provide high-quality prevention of a thromboembolism.

If superficial thrombophlebitis of foot and a shin is diagnosed for the patient, then it is possible to apply the methods of conservative treatment appointed by the doctor in out-patient conditions. The person can and messages active life are farther, however at the same time to follow recommendations of the doctor. So, the affected extremity several times for day it is necessary to keep some time in sublime situation. Bandages with Unguentum Heparini, cold in this case are often applied to therapy. Also sick purpose of means with the antiinflammatory and reducing developments of stagnation of veins action is often recommended. Effectively indometacin, Venorutonum, Escuzanum, Troxevasinum work in this case. If the inflammation arises in fabrics near a vein, then use of a course of antibiotics and sulfanamide drugs is possible. Also for treatment of thrombophlebitis UVCh-therapy is used. It is very important to bandage regularly correctly an extremity an elastic roller. During treatment by the patient plentiful drink is recommended, however it is necessary to consider whether there are no contraindications to it.

Patients with thrombophlebitis of deep veins receive medical treatment a disease only in the conditions of a hospital. At first strict observance of a bed rest is shown them. At the same time it is necessary to lie so that the affected extremity was raised approximately on 15-20 ° and it is redressed by an elastic roller. Treatment by introduction Streptasums, Streptokinasa urokinases, and also injection intravenously of heparin, a reopoliglyukina, a pentoksifillina is in parallel made.

Approximately from the fifth to the tenth day return to active lifestyle is recommended to patients. For this purpose by it appoint special remedial gymnastics. In the first days of exercise it is carried out in a prone position - it is bendings and extensions of foot. In several days such exercises are carried out already sitting, later the dosed walking is recommended to them. But at the same time the leg shall be correctly bandaged by an elastic roller.

Also for treatment of acute thrombophlebitis some nonconventional methods of treatment are used. Girudinoterapiya (bloodsucker) is applied to treatment of those patients who have contraindications to treatment by anticoagulants. However there is also a number of contraindications for such method of treatment: anemia, pregnancy, etc.

After treatment of acute thrombophlebitis ended, it is necessary to complete several months later a recovery course in the conditions of the resort, taking radonic or hydrosulphuric baths.

As a rule, the forecast for people with acute superficial thrombophlebitis favorable. However after this disease at most of people chronic venous insufficiency develops. At such illness at the person the edematous and painful form of a posttromboflebitichesky syndrome, an erysipelatous inflammation, trophic ulcers develops. As a result, the person can incapacitate for a long time.

Prevention of thrombophlebitis

тромбофлебитFor the prevention of developing of thrombophlebitis it is necessary to treat timely and correctly chronic illnesses of veins. To provide high-quality prevention of thrombophlebitis, patients with a varicosity have to pass consultation and surveys at specialists and to carry out their instructions. Prevention of a disease at pregnant women is very important: to the women inclined to a varicosis, it is necessary to wear surely special compression stockings, to periodically take a course of medical massage. It is especially important to observe the made recommendations in the second half of pregnancy.

People who are recovered after operation are recommended to go in for physiotherapy exercises, to do massage. Regular use of clothes with compression characteristics, elastic rollers is important. If to the patient intravenous injection of certain drugs is appointed, it is necessary to pay special attention to observance of all norms of an asepsis and antiseptics. It is not necessary to use for infusions of a vein of legs.

Feeding habits also have a certain value: it is important not to abuse animal fats, too fat meat, at the same time to include in a diet different vegetable oils, berries, vegetables and other products, with the high content of Rutinum and ascorbic acid.

Also everyday activity is important: it is necessary to walk, do to a thicket swimming and driving by bicycle. Having a rest, you keep periodically legs in the raised state to strengthen a blood flow. When sitting a leg it is not necessary to cross. Women should not wear constantly shoes on heels: daily boots have to have a heel not higher than five centimeters.

It is necessary to avoid an overeating, excess weight is also the factor contributing to a disease. Too hot bathtubs, a raising of weights, reception of hormonal drugs can provoke an illness.

To monitor especially carefully observance of these rules to the people having tendency to diseases of veins, and also pregnant women.

Section: Diseases of vessels
in more detail

Education: "Pharmacy" graduated from the Rovno state basic medical college majoring in. Graduated from the Vinnytsia state medical university of M. I. Pirogov and internship on its base.

Experience: From 2003 to 2013 – worked at positions of the pharmacist and manager of a pharmaceutical booth. It is awarded by diplomas and distinctions for long-term and honest work. Articles on medical subject were published in local editions (newspaper) and on various Internet portals.