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February 24, 2012
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Thrombosis is a state of which formation of clots in gleams of vessels of circulatory system or in cardial cavities is characteristic. In development of this illness there is a developing of blood clots – clots — in veins. Similar clots consist of thrombocytes, erythrocytes, leukocytes, fibrin. They interfere with a normal blood-groove. Such blood clots can fasten to a vein wall and to be mobile. But generally this illness is considered very dangerous and demands immediate treatment. However insidiousness of a disease consists also that thrombosis, depending on an arrangement, character of blood clot, and also to what degree it blocks a vessel gleam, can develop completely imperceptibly for the person. Especially lack of symptoms is characteristic of blood clot which moves. Such blood clot constitutes special health hazard and the patient's lives, in the course of movement it can move to a pulmonary artery and provoke its full obstruction.
There is a number of states owing to which in veins of the lower extremities of the person bad blood circulation is observed. Similar is characteristic at a varicosity, pregnancy, to long-term stay in a sedentary pose. As soon as movement of blood becomes slower, in an organism there are premises for emergence of blood clots in veins.
Also thrombosis often develops at those patients who suffer from too high coagulability of blood. In certain cases this pathology is descended. However more often the similar phenomenon arises because of severe dehydration of an organism. In turn, dehydration can become result of the plentiful use of alcoholic drinks, the long period of deduction of high temperature of a body, and also the use of a number of hormonal contraceptives.
Thrombosis can arise in the presence of damage of venous walls, because of the expressed influence of the pathological microorganisms living in soft tissues.
It is accepted to allocate a number of factors which can provoke development of thrombosis. It is accepted to refer to those age, existence of tendency to obesity, earlier undergone operations on an abdominal cavity, extremities, joints, a long hypodynamia owing to a long bed rest after operation. Higher risk level of development of thrombosis is observed also at pregnant women: this consequence of increase of coagulability of blood in view of increase in contents of protein in it. Also the uterus which increased in the course of incubation of the child can worsen a blood stream. Blood vessels can be damaged and at the time of delivery, and also because of injuries of other character. Therefore thrombosis often arises in a puerperal period. The releaser leading to formation of blood clots often is development of oncological diseases.
Recently also cases of thrombosis of upper extremities became frequent. In this case other origins of such pathology are defined. So, emergence of a deep vein thrombosis in upper extremities can turn out to be consequence of existence in a catheter hand vein. Owing to long stay in a vein the catheter provokes irritation. As a result, on its wall blood clot can be formed. Also thrombosis is sometimes shown owing to existence of a cardiodefibrillator or an artificial pacemaker of heart, and also at tumors of malignant character in a vein. Too strong exercise stresses on hands can also become the contributing factor. Such type of thrombosis, as a rule, is destiny of well put people who play sports. In this case deep veins are squeezed by the developed muscles of a shoulder girdle and, as a result, in them passability is broken.
At the person with such illness pronounced symptoms of thrombosis are observed. First of all, he feels very severe pains of arching character, often pain is shown in the course of walking. If to compare skin color on an affected area to color of a healthy integument, then in the first case the expressed discoloration will be observed. Skin in view of stagnation of a venous blood finds a cyanotic color. Symptoms of thrombosis arise in development of a disease. At patients hypostases, redness of skin are shown, body temperature can grow, high sensitivity or displays of pain in hips, calves is felt, at a contact to the place affected with a disease. Such feelings amplify during walking, long standing.
However, in the course of diagnosis it is important to differentiate thrombosis symptoms with symptoms of other diseases. The same symptoms can be observed also at Baker's cyst, at cellulitis. It considerably complicates process of diagnosis of thrombosis.
As the first sign of a deep vein thrombosis display of a thrombembolia of a pulmonary artery is possible. Sudden obstruction of a pulmonary artery is characteristic of such state. Very often blood clot which developed in deep veins of the lower extremities and promoted to a pulmonary artery is the reason of similar. In this case the patient will feel sudden emergence of an asthma, increase in frequency of heartbeat, pain in a thorax which will be aggravated if the person breathes deeply. The patient can suffer from fits of coughing at which blood will be emitted, he can faint owing to a similar state.
Complications of thrombosis
As complications of thrombosis of arteries and disturbance of a blood-groove at the patient rather serious illnesses can develop afterwards. In certain cases heart attacks of krovosnabzhayemy bodies become complication of this illness. It can be a myocardial infarction, an ischemic disease, a thromboembolism.
In certain cases thrombosis to become the first step to development of an inflammation of veins – phlebitis. In this case veins are surprised approximately three times more often than an artery. It causes slower blood flow in veins which promotes display of thrombophlebitis.
Also this state becomes frequent premises to development of thrombosis of vessels of a brain.
It is impossible to allow obstruction of a pulmonary artery blood clot. In certain cases gangrene with the subsequent amputation of an extremity turns out to be consequence of hypostases.
Diagnosis of thrombosis
Before applying tool methods of research to diagnosis of thrombosis, specialists apply cordlike tests. Bandaging of legs is for this purpose made by elastic bandage. After that the assessment of feelings of the patient, nature of filling of veins and a blood-groove is carried out. As a rule, mid-flight test is applied to establishment of level of passability of deep veins. For this purpose the leg from an inguinal fold to finger-tips is bandaged elastic bandage, and the patient some time goes. If the person feels arching onychalgias, and falling off of saphenas does not happen, then it is possible to assume disturbance of passability of deep veins which arose owing to thrombosis.
Today successfully apply several diagnostic methods of diseases, at the same time both invasive, and noninvasive methods are applied. The most exact method for detection of thrombosis is the flebografiya. For this purpose in one of veins which is located below a plait enter a contrast agent for the direction of contrast into deep veins. After that conduct radiographic research of the lower extremity. Blood clots can be revealed on the roentgenogram as defect of filling by contrast.
Sometimes for detection of blood clots ultrasonic research of vessels is appointed. With its help it is possible to define how the blood-groove speed in what condition of a wall of veins, and also to see blood clots changes.
By means of radionuclide scanning it is possible to learn the level at which blood clot is located. For this purpose in a vein of foot administer the special radioactive drug which collects then in blood clot. After that blood clot is scanned.
Treatment of thrombosis
Considering that serious complications become an effect of thrombosis, the person for whom diagnose thrombosis should be hospitalized at once.
If there are no contraindications to this procedure, then in the first five days to the person delete blood clot. If not attached blood clot takes place, veins are drawn. As a rule, this procedure does not provoke emergence of by-effects, and patsint very quickly recovers.
If symptoms of thrombosis take place at people of advanced age who suffer from many illnesses and have predisposition to obstruction of a pulmonary artery, special traps which prevent hit of blood clots in the patient's lungs are applied.
If the blood clots attached to walls of vessels are diagnosed for the patient, then very often for therapy of thrombosis different medicines are used.
In this case use of the anticoagulants lowering coagulability of blood, and also drugs — trombolitik, fibrinolitik, dezagregant is reasonable.
Heparin intravenously and subcutaneously is appointed the most often sick. The dosage and a way of introduction is defined in an individual order. Use in parallel with heparin of indirect anticoagulant (Dicumarinum) is also possible. Such treatment lasts, at least, several months for the purpose of prevention of palindromias. In the course of therapy an inspection of a condition of blood for probable change of doses of medicines is often carried out.
Reception of a dezagregant – aspirin is in certain cases appointed. It destroys those cells which are responsible for a blood svorachivayemost. Aspirin is also considered means which is effective as prevention of thrombosis. This medicine can be used for prevention of thromboses.
Prevention of thrombosis
First of all, for prevention of thrombosis it is necessary to undertake all measures for timely treatment of a varicosity and other diseases of veins. It is very important to know whether family predisposition to fibrinferments takes place. If similar diseases occurred at the family, the person should conduct a blood analysis on a thrombophilia. Similar research needs to be passed also to people who have some risk factors of thrombosis. These are the heavy smokers, people having obesity, diseases of veins of legs. Also permanent sedentary job and high level of cholesterol is considered risk factors.
It is important to carry out therapy of diseases of cardiovascular system, oncological illnesses, a diabetes mellitus in time.
In the course of prevention of thrombosis one of the defining steps is ensuring due level of everyday activity and continuous moderate physical exercises. A healthy lifestyle should be led constantly, and during certain periods of life (at physical overworks, surgeries) it is necessary to accept special drugs.
The people having tendency to thrombosis should take all measures to speed up work of venous heart. In the course of sedentary work it is important to do regular breaks which are followed by performance of several exercises. Foot walks in the fresh air are useful. As prevention of thrombosis also the drinking mode is important, for maintenance of a water balance it is necessary to use enough liquid.
As measures of prevention full refusal of smoking, healthy food is necessary. To the people inclined to varicosity, it is necessary to carry compression jersey, to accept niacin drugs, vitamin complexes (vitamins of group B, folic acid are important).
Section: Diseases of vessels