And whether you know...
April 5, 2012
Cystitis is an illness at which there is an inflammatory process of a wall of a bladder. As a rule, at cystitis his mucous membrane inflames.
This disease of a bladder arises rather often: as the medical statistics testifies, about 35% of aged people from 20 to 45 years have cystitis. As a rule, most often about what is cystitis on own experience girls and women learn. At the same time cystitis at men – the phenomenon very rare. Such features of a disease are caused by an anatomic difference in a structure of urinogenital system at representatives of both floors. Cystitis at women is provoked by too small length of an urethra, and also the fact that its opening is about an anus. Therefore, bacteria can easily get into a bladder and provoke an infection. Cystitis arises most often at sexually active women, pregnant women, and also at women who stay in the course of a postmenopause.
In general, as physicians testify, among urological illnesses cystitis is the most often meeting.
Symptoms of cystitis are shown at the person owing to influence of infections, in particular colibacillus. However, the inflammation mucous a bladder is rather frequent arises owing to display of staphylococcal, enterokokkovy, streptococcal infections. But today specialists proved that only infection is not a sufficient reason for manifestation at the person of cystitis. In order that cystitis developed, presence of a number of concurrent factors which provoke decrease in the general body resistance is necessary. Among similar factors it should be noted earlier postponed infectious disease, the general exhaustion and strong overfatigue, avitaminosis and other reasons.
Cystitis at women arises owing to influence of some factors. So, the disease can be shown after earlier postponed inflammatory diseases of gynecologic, urological or venereal character. Often cystitis develops after gonorrhea, an urethritis, an adeneksit, an endometritis and some other illnesses. Especially often specified diseases are continued by development of cystitis if they were not cured completely, or the person tried to treat a disease independently, without consultation of the doctor and purpose of the correct course of therapy.
Also cystitis arises in the presence in an organism of the chronic centers of an infection. It can be the teeth infected with caries, inflammations of chronic character.
Very often cystitis turns out to be consequence of strong overcooling of an organism. The probability of development of a disease after overcooling of area of a basin is especially high. So, the woman can just sit on cold stones about twenty minutes, and after a while the inflammation of a bladder will be shown almost for certain.
Besides, display of cystitis is promoted by long stay in a sitting position. Therefore during office work, long stay at the computer it is important to do periodically short changes and warm-ups, changing situation.
Often arising locks which proceed till several days are also the factor promoting the subsequent development of cystitis. To prevent emergence of cystitis, it is necessary not to allow wrong subtyranny after the act of defecation: to avoid an infection, it is necessary to wipe exclusively in front back, but not on the contrary. In the period of monthly the woman has to change often tampons or laying, in this case the risk of infection also increases.
The cystitis reason women can have even a carrying very close linen and tights for a long time. Besides, each woman in order to avoid this unpleasant disease has to observe the correct everyday mode of an urination. It is necessary to urinate not less than five times for day. At very long intervals between a campaign in a toilet the infection can get into a bladder, and, as a result, there is an inflammation.
Besides, cystitis at children and women is shown in the presence of other states which negatively influence a condition of immune system of the person. Thus, the regular long sports trainings causing an overstrain, a constant lack of a dream, improper feeding, constant stressful situations and other reasons can become the reasons of cystitis.
At the same time the cystitis reasons at men – chronic inflammatory processes of the bodies located in the neighbourhood. So, cystitis at men can be shown at an inflammation of intestines, a prostate, a small egg and an appendage, an urethra. It is caused also by the following reasons: existence of obstacles in urinary tract or increase in the size of a prostate. Cystitis at men often is more serious illness, than at women.
Tubercular cystitis at the person is shown at development of a nephrophthisis. In this case the heavy clinical picture takes place. Doctors warn that recently cases of tubercular cystitis considerably became frequent in view of growth of quantity of cases of tuberculosis.
The main symptoms of cystitis are expressed very frequent and an urodynia. They are shown in most cases after essential overcooling. The urination at the person healthy, as a rule, occurs five-six times a day. More frequent campaigns in a toilet can demonstrate that the inflammation in a bladder develops. Except a polyuria (too frequent urination) as symptoms of cystitis pain in the course of an urination is shown, besides, patients suffer from pains in the bottom of a stomach which have the pulling character. At the patient with cystitis urine grows turbid, sometimes in it it is possible to find blood impurity. Also in the course of an urination burning can be felt, the person complains that he cannot hold urine.
Acute cystitis is quite often shown by a fever and increase of body temperature to subfebrile. Sometimes in this case softly expressed cystitis symptoms are observed: patients have only pain in the bottom of a stomach. Acute cystitis can independently recover: its manifestations just disappear in several days. But most often acute cystitis lasts for seven-nine days, at the same time use of the correct scheme of treatment is required. However if the body temperature of the patient exceeds 38 degrees, then it is necessary to consult immediately with the urologist to exclude existence of an infection of upper uric ways.
At a chronic form of a disease symptoms of cystitis are caused by that illness which became the reason of the inflammation developing in a bladder. Besides, symptoms of cystitis are defined in this case also by the general condition of the sick person. They in general are similar to symptoms of acute cystitis, however are expressed less brightly.
At chronic cystitis there can periodically be palindromias, at the same time at the patient time of rest smenivatsya often by exacerbations of cystitis.
Except the specified forms slow cystitis of which the expressed aggravations are not characteristic sometimes is diagnosed. However patients nevertheless constantly complain of a frequent urination at which there is a small morbidity. Besides, symptoms of cystitis of such form are periodic jumps of body temperature to subfebrile, and also the general feeling of weakness and weakness.
Cystitis at children, as a rule, provokes feeling sick and the general weakness at the child. The patient becomes irritable, he reduces appetite, sometimes there is vomiting. Besides, the child complains of morbidity at an urination. Having suspicion on cystitis at children, parents have to consult surely with the doctor, similar symptoms are characteristic also of other diseases.
Types of cystitis
If cystitis at women and men is shown sharply in a healthy bladder, then in this case it is necessary to speak about primary cystitis. If the inflammation of a bladder arises as an effect of a certain disease of a bladder, then secondary cystitis takes place. Besides, secondary cystitis develops as a result of an inflammation of other bodies of urinogenital system of the person. In view of certain features of anatomy and physiology most often primary cystitis is shown at women at young age. Secondary cystitis at men most often arises as an effect of inflammatory process of a prostate. This illness is characteristic of men of advanced age.
If to consider character of an illness, then cystitis can be subdivided on acute and chronic.
Besides, there is a classification of cystitis according to their origin. Cystitis which has an infectious origin are mainly diagnosed. But sometimes bladder inflammations which develop as an effect of chemical influence (as a result of treatment by certain medicamentous drugs), thermal influence meet (an effect of washing of a bladder too hot liquid). Can lead burns, and also traumatizing to cystitis mucous a bladder. However even at the similar phenomena a crucial role in a course of a disease plays infections which quickly join.
Diagnosis of cystitis
It is, as a rule, simple to diagnose cystitis. At cystitis in an acute and chronic form patients clearly define existence of characteristic symptoms therefore the specialist, having conducted detailed survey, can assume the similar diagnosis. It is also important to study the anamnesis of the patient, at a chronic form of cystitis the disease which preceded it also takes place.
If the specialist suspects cystitis at the patient, it is necessary to carry out the analysis of urine which results give the chance to define existence of an inflammation. The diagnosis "cystitis" is confirmed if in urine of the patient there are leukocytes, pathogenic microorganisms. To define character of an illness in more detail, the doctor appoints to the patient research method of a tsistoskopiya and a tsistografiya. Such inspection allows to define as far as inflammatory process extended, to learn whether there are no tumors or stones of a bladder. Besides, the tsistografiya defines characteristic changes at tubercular cystitis. It is important to conduct all researches in time and completely, symptoms which are shown at cystitis, can confirm also other diseases of kidneys and urinary tract.
Treatment of cystitis
At treatment of cystitis first of all the doctor appoints antibacterial drugs to get rid of an infection in a bladder and to stop development of an inflammation. At purpose of antibacterial therapy it is important to consider need of reception of anti-inflammatory drugs also. Besides, in certain cases the doctor considers expedient prolonged use of medicines which stimulate process of blood supply of a bladder. It is necessary to accept such drugs not less than thirty days. Also complex treatment includes reception of adrenoblockers for simplification of desires.
At therapy of chronic cystitis it is important to cure, first of all, a disease which became the reason of transition of cystitis to a chronic form. In this case complex therapy similarly includes antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs, and also reception of vitamins, drugs which improve blood supply of a bladder. Physical therapy methods are often used. Sometimes at long chronic cystitis the bladder of the patient shrivels and decreases in sizes. In this case exclusively surgical treatment of an illness is necessary.
Complications of cystitis
The ascending pyelonephritis becomes the most frequent and dangerous complication of cystitis. At acute inflammatory process of a bladder it is broken its functions are broken, as a result, the vesicoureteral reflux is shown. At the similar phenomenon in the course of reductions of a bladder there is a hit of urine in an ureter and even in a renal pelvis. Owing to hypostasis of a mucous membrane the intramural department is squeezed, and the passage of urine is broken. As a result in a pelvis pressure increases, and at the patient acute pyelonephritis begins. It is necessary to treat such complication only in a specialized hospital.
Cystitis at pregnancy
Cystitis at pregnancy is shown in view of the general decrease in protective forces of an organism of the woman. In the course of incubation of the child it a disease often proceeds very hard. Statistically, cystitis at pregnancy arises in 10% of cases. At the same time those women who earlier, before pregnancy, already had cystitis suffer from this illness generally. If at the woman the chronic form of cystitis takes place, then owing to decrease in immunity in the course of pregnancy the illness becomes aggravated. Cystitis at pregnancy arises also against sharp shift of a hormonal background, change of microflora in a vagina.
Very important point the correct approach to treatment of cystitis at pregnancy is considered. Self-treatment and ignoring of therapy per se is very dangerous to future mothers. Cystitis owing to features of functioning of an organism of the pregnant woman can lead to the subsequent development of more dangerous illnesses. Besides, lack of treatment of an illness can have further influence on process of childbirth, complicating their current. At women who ignored displays of cystitis at pregnancy children with a low weight were born more often.
If at the pregnant woman acute cystitis is shown, she is recommended to observe a bed rest. It is important to drink a lot of liquid, to completely exclude spicy food from a diet, to reduce amount of salt. But the main rule in this case says that the pregnant woman should treat cystitis surely under supervision of the doctor.
Prevention of cystitis
As preventive measures it is important not to allow manifestations of those factors which are cystitis origins. Not to learn on own experience what is cystitis, it is important not to allow sharp and long overcooling, not to detain bladder emptyings. Hygiene of generative organs, and also the prevention of infection sexually has the defining value for prevention of cystitis. People who spend the main working hours in a sitting position have to diversify surely the day with periodic minutes of warm-up. It is necessary to treat all inflammatory diseases in time, at the same time treatment has to be appointed by the specialist and is carried out completely.