And whether you know...
The cytomegalovirus (other name — the TsMV-infection) is an illness of infectious character which is carried to family of gerpesvirus. This virus affects the person as vnutriutrobno, and other ways. So, the cytomegalovirus can be transferred in the sexual, airborne alimentary way.
It agrees the existing statistical research, antibodies to a cytomegalovirus find approximately in 10-15% of teenagers. At the age of 35 flyings the number of such people increases up to 40%.
Scientists opened a cytomegalovirus in 1956. Feature of this virus is its affinity with fabrics of sialadens. Therefore if the disease has the localized form, then it is possible to find a virus only in these glands. This virus is present at a human body for life. However the cytomegalovirus does not differ in the high level of transmissibility. As a rule, to catch a virus, long and repeated contacts, close communication with the carrier are necessary.
Today allocate three groups of people, control over activity of a cytomegalovirus for whom is especially topical issue. These are pregnant women, people at whom recurrent herpes, and also the patients having the broken immune response is shown.
Reasons of a cytomegalovirus
The person can catch a cytomegalovirus in the different ways. So, infection can occur in the contact way, through use of the infected things, in the course of organ transplantation, and also hemotransfusion from the donor who is earlier infected with a cytomegalovirus. The disease is transmitted, besides, at sexual contacts, an airborne way, during pregnancy vnutriutrobno and in the course of childbirth. The virus is in blood, saliva, breast milk, sperm, allocations from female generative organs. But a virus which gets to a human body it is impossible to distinguish at once, in this case duration of an incubation interval makes about 60 days. These days the virus can not be shown in general, however on the expiration of an incubation interval there is a sharp beginning of a disease. Overcooling and the subsequent decrease in immunity become the factors provoking a cytomegalovirus. Symptoms of a disease are shown also owing to a stress.
Symptoms of a cytomegalovirus
The SARS most often is a state which shows a cytomegalovirus. The symptoms similar to symptoms of an acute respiratory infection are shown in the course of progressing of an illness. At the same time the patient feels strong weakness, quickly gets tired, he observes headaches, cold, inflame and, respectively, sialadens increase, saliva begins to separate strongly. At the same time in language and gingivas of the patient the whitish plaque appears.
At a generalized form of a cytomegalovirus there is a defeat of a number of internals. So, inflammatory processes can take place in adrenal glands, a spleen, hepatic fabric, kidneys, a pancreas, kidneys. Frequent display of pneumonia which arises allegedly without the reason, bronchitis which is heavy for curing by means of antibiotics results. The immune status suffers changes at people with the progressing cytomegalovirus. Symptoms which are described above are supplemented by the corresponding picture of blood: so, in peripheral blood the number of thrombocytes decreases. Very often at this illness also intestines walls, eye vessels, peripheral nerves and a brain are surprised. Inflammatory processes in joints, rash on skin are possible.
If the disease affects bodies of urinogenital system, then at the patient chronic nonspecific inflammatory processes take place. In case of difficulties with establishment of the virus nature of a disease it is very difficult to treat it by means of antibiotics.
If the virus is implemented into an organism, then in it reorganization of immune system begins. And after the acute phase of an illness ended, manifestation of vegetovascular frustration and astenisation throughout a long time is possible.
At people with an immunodeficiency (at the people who transferred chemotherapy, HIV-positive people and also at the persons passing immunosuppressive therapy at organ transplantation) presence of a cytomegalovirus can provoke display of very serious illness. Defeats which are shown at such patients can become the reason of a lethal outcome.
Diagnosis of a cytomegalovirus
At diagnosis it is necessary to consider the fact that it is possible to find presence of a cytomegalovirus only in case of special researches of urine, saliva, blood, sperm, and also smears from generative organs at primary infection with an illness or in the period of an exacerbation of an infection. If the virus is found in other time, then for diagnosis it has no the defining value.
After hit of this infection in an organism in it immunoglobulins — antibodies to a cytomegalovirus begin to be produced. They stop a course of a disease owing to what it proceeds asymptomatically. In the course of a laboratory blood analysis it is possible to reveal such antibodies. However single identification of an antiserum capacity does not allow to distinguish the infection flowing from the infection postponed. Both the cytomegalovirus, and antibodies are present at an organism of the carrier of a virus constantly. At the same time antibodies do not prevent infection, and to a cytomegalovirus immunity is not developed. In case of not productive diagnosis the patient needs to make tests repeatedly on the expiration of several weeks.
Treatment of a cytomegalovirus
If the cytomegalovirus is diagnosed for the person, treatment of an illness will be directed to strangling all forms of display of a disease and to eliminate unpleasant symptoms. Today physicians have no the means destroying cytomegaly bacteria in a human body completely.
If symptoms are not shown at patients for whom the cytomegalovirus was diagnosed, treatment of a disease is not required. It testifies to normal immunity of a virus carrier.
At detection of a virus in blood in that case therapy means support and strengthening of immune system. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out immunomodulatory, and also fortifying treatment. Also reception of vitamin complexes is appointed.
At treatment of a cytomegalovirus at children and adults it is important to use an integrated approach to purpose of therapy. As a rule, at treatment reception of means with antiviral and immune influence is appointed. At the correct approach to treatment protective forces of an organism become more active, and activation of a latent form of an illness stays further under control.
It is very important to pass all necessary inspections and to timely define an exacerbation of an illness during pregnancy. Respectively, if at the pregnant woman the cytomegalovirus is revealed, treatment is selected taking into account all of specific features of her organism. If a hard case, sometimes recommend to resort to abortion. The similar conclusion is based on information obtained owing to the conducted virologic researches, clinical indications, ultrasonography of a placenta and a fruit.
The treatment directed to immunity maintenance includes procedures for strengthening and a hardening of an organism. So, often in this case bathing procedures are recommended, and those who has a certain preparation can bathe periodically in ice water.
There are many medicinal herbs which broths stimulate improvement of the general condition of an organism. Use of herbs with cholagogue influence approaches: dogrose, corn rylets, immortelle, yarrow. It is possible to rinse a mouth weak solution of iodine.
Cytomegalovirus at pregnant women
However the most serious complications of this illness are shown at women who expect appearance of the child. The cytomegalovirus and pregnancy – rather dangerous combination, sometimes leads infection with this disease even to premature births. The cytomegalovirus is one of the most often shown abortion reasons.
Besides the child at sick mother can be born with low body weight, and also with serious damages of lungs, a liver and the central nervous system. The cytomegalovirus and pregnancy are a risk that the child can not survive at all. So, by different calculations, die of 12–30% of such newborns. At children who survived approximately in 90% of cases a number of late complications is observed: they can lose hearing, sometimes there are disturbances of the speech, optic nerves will atrophy.
Therefore, very important step is inspection on existence of a tsitomegalovirusny infection in the course of planning of the birth of the child. If to exercise in use of both medical, and preventive measures judgment, then a negative impact of a cytomegalovirus on the course of pregnancy and probability of display of pathologies at the child it is possible to warn.
Cytomegalovirus at children
At infection with a cytomegalovirus of children the incubation interval can proceed from 15 days to 3 months and even more. Allocate the inborn and acquired tsitomegalovirusny infection. Very often the cytomegalovirus at children proceeds without the expressed symptoms. At an inborn form of a disease the fruit is infected during pre-natal development, catching from mother. From mother's blood the virus gets to a placenta then it appears in blood of a fruit and further gets into fabric of sialadens. If the fruit was infected on early durations of gestation, it can die. Otherwise the child is born with a number of heavy defects. So, the cytomegalovirus at children can become the reason of a nanocephalia, hydrocephaly, and also other pathologies of a brain with the subsequent development of an oligophrenia. The birth of children with pathology of cardiovascular system, a gastrointestinal tract, lungs, respiratory tracts is possible. Also the cytomegalovirus causes spasms, paresis, paralyzes in children.
If infection of the child occurred on late terms, then at the newborn the expressed defects are not observed, however the illness is expressed by the expressed jaundice, at the child the spleen and a liver are increased, damages of lungs and intestines are possible.
If the acute course of a tsitomegalovirusny infection takes place, then the newborn has a number of symptoms: slackness, a small appetite, can increase temperature, the child badly gains weight, has an unstable chair. Hemorrhagic rashes on integuments are possible. Through certain time owing to a bad set anemia, a hypotrophy develops. In general very heavy course of a tsitomegalovirusny infection is noted, and as a result often comes to an end with death of the child in the first month of life.
If the illness has the chronic form or an asymptomatic current, then the condition of the child remains satisfactory.
At the acquired disease form the child is infected in the course of childbirth, or gets an infection in the first days of life during contact with the infection carrier.
Two options of a current of a cytomegalovirus at children in this case are possible: or separately sialadens are surprised, or there is a defeat of several or one bodies. As symptoms at the child high temperature, increase in lymph nodes both on a neck, and in other places is shown. Swells mucous drinks, almonds, a spleen, a liver increase. The child refuses to eat, the chair is broken – locks or ponosa are shown. Damages of lungs, a gastrointestinal tract, yellowness of scleras, tremblings of extremities are shown. Also sepsis is possible, but the effect of therapy is not shown by antibacterial drugs. Disease is long, as a rule, it is difficult to establish the diagnosis, the cytomegalovirus in blood and saliva sometimes is not found.
Also at infection of the child with a cytomegalovirus tsitomegalovirusny hepatitis can be shown. Such children are born with a heavy hemorrhagic syndrome and a number of the malformations described above. Very often disease comes to an end letalno.
Prevention of a cytomegalovirus
Prevention of a cytomegalovirus consists mainly in careful observance of rules of both personal, and sexual hygiene. It is important to observe due care, contacting to the infected people. Most carefully it is necessary to be careful during pregnancy: in this case it is impossible to allow accidental sexual bonds. One more important moment in a question of prevention of a cytomegalovirus — immunity support. It is necessary to conduct physically active life, to eat, walk properly on fresh clean air, to accept vitamins, to avoid stressful situations. Children need to be accustomed to the correct way of life and hygiene from first years of life.
Section: Infectious diseases