And whether you know...
January 16, 2012
The vaccine represents special medical supply which is used for creation of immunity to various infectious diseases. The essence of a vaccine consists in the following: the killed or weakened microorganisms, their waste products, antigens received in the chemical or genetically engineered way are entered into an organism by means of an injection. As a result it forms immunity which will be in the future steady already against full-fledged infections.
The vaccine received the names from a viral illness of a cattle – a vaccinia (vaccinia). In 1796 the first vaccine on the person was used. The English doctor imparted the boy against natural smallpox, the vaccine was received from bubbles on a hand of the person sore with a vaccinia. And only in 100 flyings later Louis Pasteur could formulate the basic principle of vaccination which consists in use of the weakened microorganisms for creation of immunity from virulent strains.
Modern vaccination has to answer several principles:
- Safety and availability of vaccines
- For creation of vaccines the weakened or killed pathogens, their toxins or subcellular enzymes have to be used
- The following similar vaccination brings to more prompt and resistant immune response
- The vaccine stimulates an immune response thanking formations of specific memory cells in an organism
There is a set of different types of vaccines:
- Chemical vaccines: antigenic drugs which are extracted from a microbic cell are their cornerstone. For a vaccine the genes defining immunogene characteristics of this microorganism are used.
- The essence of corpuscular vaccines consists in use of the killed or the weakened components
- Live vaccines are made from the weakened strains which have the resistant fixed harmlessness — an avirulentnost. After introduction the vaccinal strain breeds in an organism of the vaccinated person and begins to promote vaccinal infectious process. Most of people pass through vaccination without visible clinical symptoms, immunity at them usually forms resistant. But fervescence, an easy indisposition and other side effects is occasionally possible. The vaccine for prevention of parotitis, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, measles, a rubella can act as an example of a live vaccine.
Annually in Russia, as well as almost any other country, the calendar of vaccination, or a calendar of inoculations is created. Carrying out vaccination of the population is provided in it. Some of inoculations are obligatory that is provided with the legislation of the country. The vaccination calendar can separately be developed for children and adults. Inclusion of each inoculation in a calendar depends on providing with vaccines, risk of emergence of various complications, influence of maternal antibodies, age features, weight of a course of an infection, an incidence, forecasts of physicians.
Calendars of vaccination of each country have difference from each other. A distinctive feature of the Russian calendar is existence of vaccination of newborns against tuberculosis. It is connected with a high incidence, and also with lack of a domestic inoculation from this disease.