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Vaccinal prevention for children
Vaccinal prevention – one of the main methods of prevention of difficult diseases, epidemic character. Thanks to such prevention there was an opportunity to avoid many diseases which threaten human life.
The calendar of inoculations works in our country. It much is similar to vaccination calendars that work in the majority of civilized countries. This document intervals between inoculations are selected so that immunity of children developed and became stronger as it is possible better. Inoculations can be divided into three categories: obligatory, preventive and voluntary.
There are also several types of vaccines:
The third look — chemical vaccines. They contain only some part of the activator. These are a meningococcal infection, hemophilic infection, whooping cough inoculations.
The fourth look – anatoxins. Their action is based on the poison produced by bacteria which lost the toxic properties, but is capable to cause immunity. Thus prevention of tetanus and diphtheria is carried out.
Important issue of use of the combined vaccines. They allow to reduce the cost of carrying out vaccination of the population and to increase coverage of inhabitants inoculations. Immunization by such vaccines at the same time against parotitis, measles and a rubella is carried out by everything to children.
Rules of vaccinal prevention at children
It is wrong to believe that all inoculations are carried out in identical conditions. On the contrary, development of immunity to each separate illness demands special approach. We give below some rules which concern the inoculations, most widespread in our country.
1. Tuberculosis inoculations carry out in different days with other inoculations. Revaccinations against tuberculosis (BTsZh vaccine) subject children age of 7 — 15 years which have a result of Mantoux reaction negative.
2. Vaccination against hepatitis B it is carried out by all newborn, it can be carried out by a vaccine of Enzheriks of Century.
3. The interval between the first three vaccination of AKDS makes 30 days, and between the third and not less than a year has to be following. For prevention of such diseases as whooping cough, tetanus, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, hepatitis B use the combined vaccines having different combinations of antigens.
4. IPV or the inactivated vaccine usually is applied at the first two vaccination, but in case of contraindications can be used for the subsequent vaccination against poliomyelitis.
5. Prevention against a Hib-infection is carried out both mono - and often combined vaccines. For primary immunization the combined vaccines are recommended for use that have a Hib-component.
6. The rubella, measles and epidemic parotitis takes root the combined vaccine (PDA) in 12 months. Repeated vaccination is carried out in 6 years. Children who for some reason did not pass vaccination against parotitis, measles and rubella in 12 months and in 6 years carry out vaccination till 18 flyings. 15-year-old children who are not vaccinated against a rubella or epidemic parotitis are vaccinated against epidemic parotitis (for boys) or against a rubella (for girls). All not vaccinated children are more senior than 18 years, are vaccinated by one dose till 30 flyings.
Vaccines for children
The first inoculation that becomes to each newborn in a maternity home – it an inoculation against a viral hepatitis of V. Osobenno is important this inoculation to those children, mother which it is the antigen carrier. In that case the child is obliged to receive the first inoculation no more, than in 12 hours after the birth, and then — in 1, 2 and 12 months. Children whose mothers are not virus carriers take root to the general scheme brought in a calendar of inoculations: in the first days of life, in 1 month and in 6 months. To such children vaccination against a viral hepatitis In is usually combined with other diseases inoculations.
The vaccine of BTsZh protects the child from tuberculosis. Extremely important that kids had such protection since the birth.
The vaccine of AKDS protects children from diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus. These diseases very hard proceed just at newborns. Here therefore AKDS is carried out since 3 months, and then in 4 months and 5 months, and the revaccination is carried out in 18 months.
Today there were so-called acellular vaccines. They significantly win before a tselnokletochny AKDS-vaccine. They cause negative reactions less often after vaccination and possess more long-term immunity.
Vaccination against poliomyelitis is carried out by two vaccines — IPV and OPV. Inactivated is more effective because it is entered intramusculary and it allows to provide an exact dosage. It is also safer when the question concerns side reactions on an inoculation as disease-producing factors in it are already dead, and in OPV — are live.
In many countries prevention of children from a hemophilic infection is carried out. The most dangerous person of an infectious bacterium is Hib. It can cause such serious diseases as meningitis, pneumonia, respiratory diseases, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, sepsis. As not created child's organism without inoculation cannot adequately resist to a disease, often there are lethal outcomes. Hib-infektion is one of basic reasons of death of small children.
Today hib-infection vaccine is applied in graphics of preventive inoculations in the majority of the countries of the world. Thanks to its use, one of the most dangerous forms — purulent meningitis is almost liquidated. Thanks to vaccination about 3 million children's lives are annually saved.
Parotitis, measles and rubella children often have, and these diseases can lead to such complications as a hearing loss and sight, encephalitis, defeat of generative organs. Vaccination has to is carried out only in offices, specially allotted for preventive inoculations, which have to have everything for first aid. Before implementation of an inoculation the health worker has to check attentively compliance of the signature on packaging of a vaccine for children and on an ampoule, and also their integrity. If tightness is broken, there is no marking or data on a label, storage conditions or a period of validity are violated — such vaccinal drug is forbidden to be used.
Ampoules with a vaccine can open only just before its use, contents are used immediately. The unused remains of vaccines are destroyed by boiling or a soaking in disinfection solutions.
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