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Varicosity of legs
The varicosity of the lower extremities which is called also a varicosis is shown as expansion of superficial veins of legs which accompanies disturbance of a blood flow and insolvency of valves.
At a varicosity of legs expansions of walls of veins of sacculate type are formed. At such state increase in length of veins, their serpentine crimpiness is observed,
insufficiency of valves. Now the varicosis is very widespread: it is observed approximately at 17-25% of people.
At early age, prior to puberty, this illness develops at representatives of both floors with an identical frequency. However at women at mature age the varicosity is observed twice more often than at men. The similar picture can be explained with essential hormonal changes during emergence of periods, during incubation of the child. As a result the tone of veins is weakened, they extend, and there is a disturbance of venous blood circulation.
Reasons of a varicosity of legs
Today specialists are inclined to support many theories which demonstrate to why the varicosity standing develops. But, nevertheless, speaking about the main reason of this illness, it should be noted disturbance of the valve device of veins. As a result, valves complicate the movement of blood in an opposite direction. Therefore, fully there is only a blood stream to heart. Insufficient function of valves of veins can be shown owing to thrombosis, inborn insufficiency of valves, weakness of walls of veins and other reasons.
At insufficiency of valves of veins the person who got on feet has an aspiration of blood under the influence of gravitation down. When walking there is a reduction of the muscles of a shin surrounding deep veins. Respectively, veins are devastated, and there is an increase of venous pressure. As a result blood comes to superficial veins, they stretch, and varicosity is shown.
There is also a number of factors which directly influence progressing of a varicosity. At women varicosity often develops as a pregnancy effect. During this period blood volume considerably increases in a female organism. The increasing uterus strongly presses on the veins going from legs. Besides in the course of pregnancy the condition of a wall of veins is influenced by hormonal reorganization of an organism. In many cases varicosity at pregnancy has reversible character, that is after the delivery it gradually disappears.
Very often the varicosity of the lower extremities is shown at people who in the course of work are forced to stand a long time. One more risk factor of developing of varicosity is obesity: at corpulent people the increased intra belly pressure and, as a result, a phlebectasia takes place.
Often veins extend also at people who are inclined to regular natuzhivaniye. Similar occurs at chronic locks, cough, adenoma of a prostate and other states. The varicosity can sometimes become independent an effect of surgeries.
One more factor contributing to a varicosity is an age of the person. As a rule, over time there is an aging of valves and walls of veins. As a result elasticity is lost, and veins stretch.
Varicosity often arises at the patients who are suffering from a deep vein thrombosis, having congenital anomalies of blood vessels.
Considering those factors which directly influenced development of a disease, it is accepted to distinguish primary and secondary varicosity.
Symptoms of development of a varicosity of legs
First of all, visible symptoms varicose the phlebectasia standing is emergence on a surface of skin of legs of a network from thin veins. Such manifestations generally arise in a zone of hips. The easiest to consider such varicose grid at people who have cellulitis. Sometimes cellulitis becomes a peculiar harbinger of a varicosis. Often adiposities at cellulitis squeeze venous vessels, and the blood stream as a result becomes complicated and there is varicosity.
Capillary grids are called standing which are shown at the beginning of a varicosity telangiectasias. However it is necessary to consider that such external manifestations can be both symptoms of varicosity, and manifestation of temporary inflammatory process.
In certain cases hypostases standing testify to the beginning of a varicosity. However such sign can be a symptom and other diseases (heart failure, an urolithiasis of kidneys). Therefore in this case it is impossible to speak accurately about development of varicosity before establishment of the diagnosis.
Symptom of a varicosis also manifestation of an onychalgia becomes frequent. Pain can be acute, and also have the pulling signs. Most often at varicosity calves pain is shown. It mainly arises in the second half of day, after a certain load of legs.
Thus, the person who observes emergence of a capillary grid, periodic displays of pain and hypostases has to see a doctor and protiums necessary researches.
Often varicosity brings to the patient a certain cosmetic discomfort. But besides, at it the feeling of strong weight in legs can be shown, there can be spasms at night, on shins trophic changes are gradually shown.
Visually the varicosis can be shown by both not especially noticeable "asterisks" of small vessels, and very large nodes and textures which are especially allocated when the patient stays in vertical position.
If the palpation of veins is carried out, then their elastic elastic consistence is defined, they easily clench. The Kazha over nodes of varicosity can have more high temperature, than other sites. If the person accepts horizontal position, then tension of veins falls down, and nodes become less expressed.
If at development of a disease of people does not think of how to treat a varicosity, the illness progresses, and gradually the feeling of fast fatigue, constant weight of legs and feeling of swelling in their fabrics joins the described symptoms, spasms can sometimes be shown. If there are hypostases, then they disappear after long rest at night.
Complications of a varicosity of legs
Very often as complication of a varicosis acute thrombophlebitis of superficial veins is shown. Sometimes owing to damages there is a rupture of a varicose node and bleeding. At a blood izlitiya from a node which burst very considerable blood loss is possible.
Besides, owing to increase of pressure in system of veins there is a delay of an arterial blood-groove. Because of it the hypoxia and the subsequent air hunger can develop. Owing to development of such state cages of fabrics can perish that is process, dangerous to an organism. Owing to the expressed stagnation of blood in veins toxins in fabrics collect.
Obstruction by blood clot of vessels, disturbance of food of tissues of legs, emergence of pigmentation and darkening of skin becomes complications of this illness also.
Gradually there is more dense a layer of subcutaneous fat, there are dermatitis, venous trophic ulcers. Seldom or never regeneration of such ulcers in malignancies takes place.
If the disease proceeds throughout the long period, then at the person chronic venous insufficiency can develop afterwards.
But the most dangerous complication of a varicosis is the thromboembolism of a pulmonary artery. This illness is fraught with a lethal outcome.
Diagnosis of a varicosity of legs
It is rather easy to diagnose it diseases. The specialist surely performs inspection and poll of the patient, studies the anamnesis. In the course of additional researches the condition of valves of the main and kommunikantny veins is defined, and also the level of passability of deep veins is estimated. There is a number of various tests which allows to estimate a condition of veins and extent of development of a disease.
If at the patient the uncomplicated varicosis takes place, then in most cases tool diagnostic methods are not applied.
Treatment of a varicosity of legs
Conservative treatment of a varicosity is generally appointed to those people who have accurate contraindications to carrying out surgical intervention.
Also similar treatment is shown in the presence at a sick insignificant phlebectasia which is exclusively cosmetic defect. The purpose of conservative therapy is also the prevention of further progressing of this illness. For this purpose patients are recommended to apply bandaging of the legs affected with varicosity, an elastic roller. Besides, the compression jersey at varicosity is shown. People who have tendency to a varicosity or already have this illness, have to put regularly for day legs on an eminence, having a rest thus several minutes. There are also special exercises for a shin and the feet directed to activation of a muscular and venous pomp. This periodic extension and bending in ankle and knee joints.
The patient has to watch to allowing tightening of a shin and hips different objects of a toilet as it can significantly complicate current of a venous blood.
By means of an elastic compression it is possible to activate a blood flow in deep veins, to warn hypostases, to reduce amount of blood in saphenas, to promote exchange processes of an organism and microblood circulation.
But to achieve positive takes, it is important to bandage a leg correctly. This process needs to be made in the morning, yet without having risen from a bed. Bandaging begins from foot fingers to a hip, at the same time the small tension of bandage has to be felt. In the course of bandaging it is necessary to take a heel and an ankle joint. The bandage at each turn around an extremity has to cover the previous round half. It is necessary to buy only the certified elastic roller and compression jersey.
Treatment of varicosity means also carrying convenient footwear in which there has to be a low heel and a rigid sole. It is not necessary to stand, allow long physical tension, the long time to stay in rooms with high temperature and humidity. In a dream of a leg it is desirable to keep in sublime situation.
Patients have to limit the use of liquid and salt, to try to get rid of excess weight. For treatment of varicosity it is periodically necessary to accept drugs - diuretics, means which improve a tone of veins. Besides, in the presence of indications to the patient can appoint administration of drugs which stimulate microcirculation in fabrics. Therapy of a varicosis can include reception of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs also.
If at the patient the neoslozhennny form of a disease takes place, occupations are shown it by physiotherapy exercises. Swimming, other hydrotherapeutic procedures, bathtubs for legs with warm water to which add 5-10% chloride sodium solution is very useful.
Very often at treatment of varicosity local methods of therapy are applied. But such treatment needs to be applied in a complex with other medicamentous methods. Local varicosity medicines let out in the form of gels, ointments, creams. As a part of the majority of such drugs there is a heparin or venoaktivny components. Varicosity ointments contribute to normalization of a tone of walls of veins, can adjust disturbances of a lymph drainage and microcirculation. At separate local drugs in structure there are several different operating components. Some of them except heparin include Rutinum, D-panthenol.
If in the course of a varicosity there is an accession of consecutive infection, then it is reasonable to apply outside means with antibiotics or antiseptic agents.
For a long time for treatment the girudoterapiya at varicosity is used. Use of the bloodsuckers emitting hirudine allows to liquefy blood, promotes a rassasyvaniye of blood clots, disposal of vascular asterisks and varicose nodes. Besides, the girudoterapiya at varicosity allows to reduce an onychalgia, to overcome hypostasis. However it is already important to apply a girudoterapiya at the earliest stages of a varicosis. Such treatment should not be applied to people with hemophilia, an anemia, hypotonia, to pregnant women.
However a radical method of therapy of varicosity is the surgery. It will be out for the purpose of elimination of veno-venous refluxes. Such operation is not performed in the presence at the patient of the accompanying pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular system, kidneys, a liver. Pregnant women, and also the people having purulent diseases cannot perform such operation. Modern technologies allow to apply endoscopic equipment to carrying out such operation.
If at the person only small branches are expanded, sclerotherapy use is allowed. Such operation means introduction to a vein of sclerosing solution for adhesion of walls of a vein. After that carry out repeated injections to other pieces of a vein, reaching at the same time a full obliteration of a vein.
At a varicosity the combined operational therapy at which removal of large trunks of the changed veins and sclerotherapy of small branches is made is also applied. After carrying out an operative measure by the patient it is recommended to continue carrying an elastic roller for 8-12 weeks.
Treatment of a varicosity of legs by national methods
Except standard ways of treatment the good effect is brought by the recipes of traditional medicine long since applied to treatment of varicosity. Treatment of a varicosity folk remedies can be practiced in parallel with traditional therapy.
At varicosity the good effect brings use of a massage shower. Such massage can be carried out in the course of daily acceptance of a shower. Streams of water just should be directed to those sites where displays of varicosity are looked through. Massage begins with warm streams, but over time water has to become more and more cold. It is also possible to apply contrast massage, alternating warm and cold water. It is important that such massage came to an end with cold streams. If massage is made correctly, then skin sites which were exposed to massage redden. After such massage it is necessary to pound legs and to apply on them medical ointment or gel.
At varicosity carrying out medical trays for legs from broths of herbs is also recommended. Such bathtubs should not be warm. The good effect gives use in the morning of a tray from infusion of a burdock, birch leaves, a nettle. To prepare such infusion, it is necessary to take on a teaspoon of the crushed herbs and to fill in with one liter of boiled water. Infusion has to be stood several hours. The tray proceeds about 290 minutes. For increase of a tone of vessels use of the same tray from infusion of collecting herbs of a nettle, a camomile, a melissa and a marjoram is effective.
Prevention of a varicosity of legs
Prevention of varicosity includes a number of the measures directed to prevention of symptoms of an illness. It is useful for each person to hold periodically legs raised, to do breaks during the sedentary work, not to carry the linen enduring a body. The alternating douche, inclusion in a diet of the products useful to blood, performance of some physical exercises will be a good method of prevention of varicosity. At the first symptoms of varicosity it is necessary to see a doctor not to allow progressing of an illness.
Section: Diseases of vessels