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Vegeto-vascular dystonia (the reduced name VSD) is a symptom complex of the clinical manifestations differing in variety and concerning different bodies and systems. VSD develops because of existence of deviations in functioning and structure of the central and/or peripheral departments of a vegetative nervous system.
This disease is not a separate nosological form, but if VSD is combined with other pathogenic factors, then emergence of a number of diseases with a psychosomatic component as a result is possible. So, owing to this state development of arterial hypertension, bronchial asthma, coronary heart disease, a peptic ulcer and other pathologies is possible. Vegetative changes directly influence the course of some diseases at children. But existence of some diseases is also aggravated by vegetative disturbances.
Statistically, symptoms of vegeto-vascular dystonia are shown most often at children of 7-8 years though such disturbances can be shown at any age. Treatment the disease demands approximately in the one third cases.
Reasons of vegeto-vascular dystonia
There are many reasons for which vegetative frustration form. Most in this case primary deviations in departments of a vegetative nervous system which are caused hereditarily are important and are in most cases traced in the area of mother.
Vegeto-vascular dystonia often forms owing to perinatal defeats of a nervous system. If the central departments of a vegetative nervous system are damaged, as a result, there is an emotional imbalance, at children neurotic and psychotic disturbances are shown. Development of VSD provokes the different psychoinjuring influences: it can be the household conflicts, intense climate in a family, alcoholism of parents, etc. Regular overloads of emotional character, constant stresses, excessive intellectual tension also become the reasons of development of vegeto-vascular dystonia.
As VSD reasons specialists define also existence of endocrine, somatic, neurologic illnesses, sharp change of weather conditions, environmental problems, a hypodynamia or excessive loadings, shortage of vitamins and useful microelements, other factors.
Symptoms of vegeto-vascular dystonia
Symptoms of vegeto-vascular dystonia differ in variety. They directly depend on type of vegetative disturbances, that is on dominance of a vagotonia or a sympathicotonia.
At a vagotonia children have various hypochiondrial manifestations: they quickly get tired, memory is broken, ability to work and study decreases, frustration of a dream, a depression, fearfulness, indecision are shown.
At the patient appetite considerably decreases, he very hard transfers cold, sometimes feels shortage of air and a chill. As VSD symptoms vestibular frustration, feeling of an onychalgia at night, dizzinesses, nausea, a Crocq's disease, perspiration, hypostases, the speeded-up urination, allergies are also shown.
In the presence of cardiovascular frustration symptoms of VSD are shown by the bradyarrhythmia, feeling of heartaches, periodic lowering of arterial pressure muffled by cordial tones.
At a sympathicotonia at the patient the following symptoms of VSD are observed: irascibility, differences of mood, high sensitivity to pain, absent-mindedness, neurotic states. The feeling of heat, a cold snap of extremities, paresthesias and numbness in extremities is possible in the morning. Body temperature can periodically increase, arise atonic locks. As cardiovascular frustration tachycardia can develop and be shown increase of arterial pressure.
At children of VSD sometimes proceeds latentno and it is shown permanently, or after the expressed influence of negative factors. There can periodically be vegetative crises (paroxysms, panic attacks, vegetative storms). Similar states can be provoked by emotional overloads, strong fizichesky and intellectual tension, and also as a result of change of weather conditions, the postponed infectious illnesses. Crisis can proceed several minutes (short-term crisis), or several hours or days (long crisis).
At children at early age vegeto-vascular dystonia is shown with some features. At children at preschool age vegetative disturbances have the moderate form, at the same time vagotonia signs possess. VSD more seriously and hard proceeds at patients at teenage age. Symptoms in this case are diverse, paroxysms often develop.
Diagnosis of vegeto-vascular dystonia
Till today there is no uniform accepted classification of VSD. Therefore in the course of diagnosis of a disease a number of the moments is surely considered. So, specialists pay attention to the etiological factors, options of frustration (mixed, vagotonic, synpaticotonic types), and also to what bodies are involved in process, what condition of a vegetative nervous system, on character of an illness and degree of its weight.
At diagnosis of vegeto-vascular dystonia it is important to consider whether close relatives of the patient had similar cases, to study features of the perinatal period. The specialist studies a current status of a vegetative nervous system, defining a vegetative tone, reactivity and ensuring activity. The analysis of complaints and objective parameters is for this purpose carried out, information obtained by means of an ECG and a kardiointervalografiya is used.
The patient surely passes consultation at several specialists of a different profile. During differential diagnosis it is important to exclude those diseases which symptoms remind manifestation of VSD. It is necessary to exclude inborn heart diseases, a rheumatic carditis, rheumatism, not rheumatic carditis. If a symptom of VSD is the increased arterial pressure, then it is important to differentiate a disease with arterial hypertension. Emergence of respiratory disturbances which are shown in the form of short wind and asthma should be differentiated with bronchial asthma. If at the patient fever is observed, then it is necessary to exclude, first of all, an infectious endocarditis, sepsis, oncological diseases. If the patient has a pronounced psychovegetative symptomatology, then disorders of mental character are excluded.
Treatment of vegeto-vascular dystonia
It is important for efficiency of therapy that treatment of vegeto-vascular dystonia took place in a complex, with an individual approach, lasted a sufficient span and at the same time nature of vegetative disturbances has to be considered.
In most cases for treatment of VSD non-drug methods are used. The doctor will surely advise the patient to change a day regimen to more correct, not to allow a hypodynamia, to try to give constantly to an organism a normal exercise stress, to limit influences of emotional character. The important part is assigned also to a rational, healthy food allowance.
Besides, effective methods of treatment of VSD is special massage, procedures in water, acupuncture. Depending on type of vegetative frustration a certain method of physioprocedures is appointed.
If the listed methods of treatment of VSD have no due effect, then the specialist selects to the patient a complex of special therapy by medicamentous drugs. Treatment begins with small doses and gradually it is carried to an optimum dosage of drugs.
In the course of therapy of vegeto-vascular dystonia it is important to take surely measures for treatment of persistent focal infection, and the accompanying pathologies.
At treatment of VSD sedative drugs, antidepressants, nootropa, tranquilizers are most often appointed. In a complex reception of vitamin and microelement medicines is recommended. Also the drugs intended for activation of cerebral and peripheric circulation are used.
If at the patient the vegetative paroxysm develops, then in hard cases parenteral administration of neuroleptics, tranquilizers, atropine is appointed. Drugs are appointed depending on what character crisis has.
Constant dispensary control of patients is important, especially it concerns patients at children's age. Inspection is passed once for several months, the regularity is defined depending on a form and weight of an illness. In view of an exacerbation of a disease during transitional seasons — in the spring and in the fall – during this period inspection can be necessary more frequent.
If the disease responds to treatment timely, and at the same time effective complex therapy, then the forecast on recovery of the patient favorable is applied.
Prevention of vegeto-vascular dystonia
It is necessary to apply a package of measures to efficient prevention of vegeto-vascular dystonia, directed to the prevention of a course of a disease. For this purpose it is necessary to prevent the existing risk factors which can influence emergence or an aggravation of VSD.
To get rid of a disease or to prevent its manifestations, it is important to pay attention to way of life, having changed the relation to a dream, food, activities. It is necessary to alternate competently the periods of intensive work and good rest, to change to the best the mode and quality of food, to go in constantly for physical culture or to practice occupations by a certain sport. Positive impact on a condition of an organism will be made even by usual everyday gymnastics. It is important to spend every day much time in the fresh air, to try to avoid stressful situations and strong emotional shocks. Specialists recommend to learn several techniques of a relaxation and to apply them in critical situations.
Important point for prevention of vegeto-vascular dystonia is refusal of smoking, minimization or full refusal of alcohol intake. At the same time the condition of vessels normalizes the use of vegetables, greens, fruit, grain, seafood.
Specialists also advise not to neglect a daily alternating douche which effectively protects from "malfunctions" in a vegetative nervous system.