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HIV infection and AIDS
November 10, 2012
The first time information on the disease called by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was heard in the eighties the last century. At that time specialists diagnosed earlier unknown illness. The person who got sick with it suffered from an immunodeficiency which occurred only at premature newborns earlier. During researches it became clear that such patients had not an inborn immune deficit, and acquired. For this reason the illness also received the name a syndrome of the acquired immune deficit, in abbreviated form AIDS. For the first time symptoms of an illness were noted at several people from Sweden and the USA. And in 1983 scientists declared discovery of a human immunodeficiency virus.
Since then history AIDS proceeds till today: at this stage the speech already goes about epidemic of this illness. As the statistics testifies, in the world there are about 50 million people having AIDS now. Unfortunately, and now there is no effective medicine for this dangerous illness. Therefore the most important measure of prevention is knowledge of the population of what is AIDS and that needs to be known for prevention infection.
HIV infection and immunity
Initially it is necessary to know about distinctions of the main concepts connected with a disease: HIV, AIDS. So, HIV is a human immunodeficiency virus. It becomes an infestant which doctors call HIV infection. The disease develops on stages, and the last from them is called AIDS.
HIV directly influences immune system of a human body. Thanks to immunity the organism can resist to substances and live organisms which bear alien genetic information. In the course of functioning of immune system antibodies which fight against antigens (alien substances) and the causative agents of diseases getting to an organism are developed. While such substances get to an organism, there is an inclusion of an immune response in which lymphocytes take part. Initially lymphocytes are distinguished activators then these blood cells block their influence and activate development of antibodies.
HIV infection develops at the person as a result of HIV infection. Infection occurs if the infected blood gets to a blood stream of the healthy person or at sexual contacts. In the first case the virus gets to an organism when carrying out injections the unsterile syringe, and also in the course of transfusion of the infected blood. If process of infection happens owing to sexual contacts, then penetration of a virus happens through mucous membranes of generative organs, a rectum, and in more exceptional cases – through an oral cavity. If the person has ulcers or wounds on mucous membranes, then the risk of infection sharply increases.
HIV can be transmitted from mother to a fruit during pregnancy vnutriutrobno, and also at patrimonial process or already during feeding of the kid by a breast. Therefore HIV and pregnancy are the serious combination demanding continuous supervision of the doctor.
Now other ways of infection with an infection are not registered.
In case of the unprotected oral sex there is a certain risk of infection with a disease for the partner "accepting", at the same time the partner "entering" cannot catch as there is only a contact with saliva. However in this case it is about low average risk, but not about full safety.
During proctal contact probability of transfer of a virus higher as at the same time mucous membranes are often injured.
Specialists warn also that if at vaginal and proctal contacts condoms are used incorrectly, then risk of infection with a virus very high. Infection and in case of existence at the person of venereal diseases is more probable.
It is important to understand and what to define without the corresponding analyses whether the person of HIV is infected, is impossible.
Infection with an infection in life does not occur as out of an organism of HIV there are only a few minutes then perishes. But at the same time it is important to know that in the used syringe the live virus can exist for several days. Through corporal contacts – embraces, a touch, handshake – the virus does not indulge. The unimpaired integuments are a barrier to transfer of a virus to the person. Theoretically infection can occur only if at the patient's touch enough the infected blood gets to a wound of the healthy person. The virus cannot be transmitted through clothes, a bed, household items. There is no infection and at visit of a bath or the pool as, getting to water, the virus perishes. Besides, the virus is not transferred by insects or animals at stings. In view of low concentration of a virus in saliva of the person there is no infection and during a kiss. In the course of medical manipulations infection is impossible in view of careful sterilization of all tools.
Thus, it is important to know that HIV contains only blood, sperm, vulval allocations and breast milk. Therefore, it is dangerous to contact to the person infected with HIV only at sexual contacts, and also at the general acceptance of drugs. Therefore careful prevention is important. How HIV and as it is possible to catch a disease is transmitted, each person has to know as much as possible to secure itself and the relatives.
Development of HIV
HIV infection proceeds at men and at women many years therefore the patient gradually in own way adapts to how to live with an infection. At the same time there is a decrease in immunity progressing over time. Such situation as a result leads to the fact that at the person symptoms of serious opportunistic and oncological illnesses are shown. Unfortunately, it is till today considered to be that generally the outcome of HIV infection is a death of the patient. However, studying what is HIV and what its effects, it is important to understand that specialists define existence of both less infectious strains of HIV, and patients who have the high level of stability.
Symptoms of HIV are shown gradually, agrees with the periods of development of a disease. It occurs in several stages. Initially after infection there comes the incubation interval. Further there are first clinical displays of an illness then stage of latency follows. After that the infection enters a stage of development of secondary diseases. The last period – terminal. Despite the fact that whether visible symptoms of HIV infection are shown at the person, it is infectious for surrounding people at all stages of development of an illness. But the highest chance to catch — from the person in the acute period of an illness, and also upon transition of HIV to AIDS stage. To these periods there is an active reproduction of a virus in a human body.
The incubation interval proceeds to the first clinical signs of an illness. At different people it protekt throughout different spans: from several weeks to one year. But on average this period proceeds at the person about three months. At this stage it is possible to make to the patient the diagnosis, having found a virus, its gene material or antigens in the course of laboratory research. On condition of the classical course of HIV infection after an incubation interval there comes the period of acute primary infection.
Symptoms of HIV and AIDS
All stages of HIV have certain manifestations. The first clinical signs of HIV approximately at a half of patients are shown for one or two weeks. They are identical both at men, and at women. Such symptoms remind symptoms of a SARS: the person can be in a fever, he increases lymph nodes, constant drowsiness and fatigue is shown, eye pain and a headache disturbs. The person can also suffer from a photophobia, in different places of a body there is rash, cough and cold disturbs. Such manifestations disappear independently approximately in 2-4 weeks after the beginning. However not all infected HIV know about how the infection during this period as at part of people it passes completely asymptomatically is shown. One more option – the person just does not pay attention to the erased indisposition signs. After symptoms abate, there comes illness stage of latency.
When the first displays of a disease decrease, the period of stabilization of a state follows. Life with HIV can last many years. By estimates of physicians, life expectancy with a virus averages 12 years. Speaking about that how many there live people with HIV, it should be noted that some infected lived 20 and more than flying. However sometimes the lethal outcome came approximately in a year after infection with a virus. At this stage of an illness increase in some lymph nodes can become the only manifestation. But in general overall health of the patient remains quite satisfactory at this time. And often infected person does not even know what is HIV and that it caught this virus.
Further in development of a disease there comes the period of secondary diseases. At the patient immune deficit develops. Its manifestations are expressed by developing of so-called opportunistic diseases (it is about infections which cause serious consequences only against an immunodeficiency).
AIDS is the most severe form of HIV infection. This stages can last from six months to two years. The disease proceeds in different forms: pulmonary, intestinal, in the form of the illness affecting skin, a nervous system, mucous membranes. But in each of the specified cases the mechanism of development of an illness remains identical: because the AIDS virus destroyed immune system, there is activation of the causative agents of other diseases which are present at an organism. Thus, consecutive infection from which the person perishes develops.
Most often the disease is shown in a pulmonary form. At such course of a disease symptoms of AIDS are shown by development of the pneumonia proceeding much more seriously than in not infected patient. At HIV the special, pneumocystic form of pneumonia is diagnosed. Also rather often the intestinal form which first manifestations consist in the long ponosa lasting owing to even till some months develops. As a result, the intestinal form of an illness, both at men, and at women, leads to considerable loss of body weight, and also to organism dehydration. The analysis of the data which are available for physicians demonstrates that digestive tract diseases at AIDS are shown generally under the influence of mushrooms of the sort Candida, salmonellas, bacteria of tuberculosis, cytomegaloviruses. Saying about how this form of an illness is shown, it should be noted that symptoms in this case can be the most various.
Approximately in 20% cases the illness proceeds as consecutive infection which strikes a nervous system of the person. As a result encephalitis, meningitis, brain abscesses develops, and approximately in 2% of cases the infection provokes a brain tumor. AIDS symptoms at this form are shown at an early stage of an illness by fervescence, decrease in memory and intelligence. Gradually the patient becomes very sluggish and even slowed down. At late stages of a disease the virus continues to breed that provokes a brain atrophy. Serious symptoms — disintegration of the personality, memory loss, weak-mindedness, epileptic seizures result.
Approximately at a half of the infected patients skin and mucous membranes on which erosion develop is surprised. Later on skin there are multiple tumors, cancer of walls of blood vessels, fungal and viral infections become more active. Such defeats are considered as one of the most precursory symptoms of AIDS.
Diagnosis of HIV
Many people to be afraid to make the decision and to pass the analysis on HIV. Nevertheless, if the person has the slightest suspicion on infection with a virus, blood test needs to be made without hesitating as timely diagnosis can continue the patient's life. It is desirable to take a blood test in the specialized center where if necessary at once it is possible to get the express advice of the specialist. However, not so important, where exactly to make tests: there is a question of immediate diagnosis much more actually.
For detection of a virus the special test for HIV practices in a human body. During such testing detection of the antibodies developed by an organism as response to hit in a virus organism is possible. There are several kinds of such tests, and, the rapid test can theoretically be carried out even in house conditions.
The first test allowing to find a virus is the enzyme immunoassay which is considered the most widespread method of establishment of the diagnosis. It is possible to define existence of a virus by this method of research in three months after infection. During this time enough antibodies for detection of an infection collects. Carrying out such analysis yields false result in 1% of cases. At suspicion on receiving false-negative or false positive result it is possible to carry out retest in three months.
The second option of research – carrying out a so-called immune bloting which allows to find specific antibodies to HIV. Results of this test can be positive, negative and doubtful. When receiving doubtful result the speech can go about presence at blood of the person of HIV, however the organism did not manage to develop all antibodies yet. In that case supervision of the specialist and carrying out repeated the analysis through a certain span is necessary.
The third carried-out test — polimerazny chain reaction. It allows to reveal RNA and DNA viruses. In the course of this test there is an effective and highly sensitive reaction which allows to reveal a virus if result of an immune bloting uncertain. Also this test gives the chance to find the HIV status of newborns. Carrying out such test gives the chance to reveal a virus in 10 days after its hit in an organism. But at the same time doctors consider that so high sensitivity of the test gives reaction and to other infections. Therefore the false positive result is rather widespread in this case. Therefore, the final diagnosis only according to such test cannot be made. Carrying out such test requires the difficult equipment, and also specially prepared professionals. In view of the high cost of the analysis widely it is not applied now.
Perhaps also definition of existence of an infection by method of a rapid test which is applied in emergency situations. But the result received at such research cannot be considered as final. Therefore it is necessary to carry out any other full test later.
To provide rather effective treatment of AIDS and HIV infection at patients, doctors take measures for suppression of activity of a virus. Besides, active opposition shown to oncological diseases and opportunistic infections which arise against decrease in immunity practices. Besides, to the patient a certain AIDS medicine which action is directed to stimulation of protective functions of an organism is appointed. Unfortunately, till today the effective AIDS vaccine is not developed. Therefore doctors do everything possible as much as possible to reduce manifestation of symptoms and to improve a condition of the patient. Before purpose of any course of treatment the diagnosis initially is confirmed and is established what stage of an illness takes place at the patient. The main indication to carrying out specific treatment is decrease in indicators of the immune status, and also development of secondary diseases.
The most perspective treatment of HIV and AIDS is today a complex use of antiviral drugs which effectively suppress reproduction of a virus, and also immunity stimulators for prevention of promptly shown immunodeficiency.
One their main problems which it is necessary to meet at therapy of HIV infection the high level of toxicity which is possessed practically by each HIV medicine is. Besides, the virus very quickly adapts practically to any drug therefore in the course of treatment the combination therapy is applied. As the vaccine protecting from a disease still stays in the course of development, anti-virus treatment at which 2-3 drugs stopping reproduction of HIV are used at once is actively applied today.
Even if the patient is sure that he knows practically all of AIDS, the most important condition for successful treatment of a disease are continuous consultations with the specialist. The drugs appointed by the attending physician should be accepted strictly according to recommendations of the doctor. Only in this case the AIDS virus in an organism decreases to a minimum. For the purpose of ensuring control over efficiency of therapy the special analyses allowing to determine force of immune system and quantity of a virus in an organism are constantly carried out.
In spite of the fact that now effective drugs from HIV do not exist, statistically, about a third of people with HIV infection feel well and remain rather healthy during 10 flyings.
But nevertheless treatment in certain time is necessary for practically all infected people. When progressing AIDS there is no opportunity to stop process, but nevertheless transition of HIV infection to AIDS happens at different people for a different span. Today there is not one myth about AIDS. But the thesis that at the use of drugs the disease progresses much quicker, an etovsa the truth. The matter is that at regular hit of narcotic substances in an organism immunity is weakened, and at interaction of anti-virus drugs to narcotic substances there can be irreversible poisoning of an organism.
It is important to provide to the patient not only drug treatment, but also a favorable psychological situation. It is regularly important to the infected people to communicate both with doctors, and with the same patients. For people it is easier to strike up acquaintances with HIV in Wednesday, usual for himself, among the same infected patients. Realities of today demonstrate that such patients often find adherents in the Internet: sometimes for people with HIV the forum or group on a social network is not less important support, than consultations at the doctor. Besides such communication allows to use experience of "positive" patients.
Prevention of AIDS remains the topical issue almost around the world also now. To avoid infection, each person has to understand accurately how AIDS is transmitted, and also to realize that at usual household contacts infection does not occur. Scientists finally defined what ways of transfer of a virus exist. Therefore an important point in a question of prevention is full refusal of drugs, and also the arranged sexual life. But even if sexual contacts happen to one constant partner, the condom is an important additional security measure.
Section: Infectious diseases