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Vitamin D (calciferols)
Vitamin D represents group of biologically active agents which part is holekaltsifero, ergocalciferol and other substances.
At first vitamin D was perceived by physicians as a factor against rickets. The cod liver fat rich given by substance, was applied in the medical purposes against rickets since ancient times, however it was succeeded to connect therapeutic effect with availability of vitamin D in it only at the beginning of the 19th century. And century later it was noted that solar bathtubs help to saturate an organism with this vitamin at all not worse.
At the beginning of the 20th century the vitamin formula was open, the German professor, the Nobel Prize laureate of medicine who received an award for studying of vitamins made it. From those vitamin D was carried to the vital substances.
Main functions of vitamin D:
- Ensuring normal development of bones, growth
- Prevention of osteoporosis, rickets, softening of bones
- Regulation of a mineral exchange
- Promotes adjournment of calcium in bone tissues
- Influences the general metabolism
- Increases immunity
- Provides normal functioning of a thyroid gland
- Normalizes coagulability of blood
- Regulates the arterial pressure and heart beat
- Interferes with growth of cancer cells
- Increases body resistance to infections and viruses
- Provides production of substance for calcium transportation, strengthens its reabsorption, increases its absorption in a small intestine, increases permeability of an epithelium for calcium.
It is necessary for development of necessary amount of vitamin D all for half an hour in a week to be shown on the sun. At the same time, various protective equipment cannot be used as they can block hit of sunshine on skin practically to 100%. Even the protectant with small degree of protection of SPF15 will pass no more tenth part of a sunlight. Elderly people, and also people with swarty skin need bigger time of stay for the sun.
For the people who completely refused the animal fats or which in general passed to vegetarianism, the problem of shortage of vitamin D can turn into the real trouble: the matter is that this vitamin is fat-soluble, and it means that in the absence of fats in food its assimilation is impossible. Deficit of vitamin is very widespread phenomenon, especially in a cold season when the sun practically does not happen. Decrease in comprehensibility of calcium at deficit vitamin D can affect the most serious problems with health: from joint pains to cardiovascular diseases, problems with kidneys, etc.
Many polyvitaminic complexes, and also food stuffs incorporate vitamin D. Researches at the Boston university for which the manufacturing company of one of the most popular aerated water in the world sponsored showed that vitamin D is capable to be soaked up by an organism through the enriched drinks and juice. As a result this company demanded to allow addition of vitamin D in drinks.
As well as almost any other vitamin, vitamin D in excess quantity is rather toxic for a human body. It can increase deposits of calcium in kidneys, provide a skeleton rassasyvaniye, break cardiac performance and blood vessels. However such cases are extremely rare, especially for inhabitants of middle latitudes. It is possible to receive the raised vitamin dose only with food, through solar bathtubs it cannot be made: in the latter case the organism will send a necessary dose to the needs, and remained will reserve in a liver till the worst times, all excesses just will not be developed.
As symptoms of a giperavitominoz serves weakness, isopor diarrhea, acute headaches, and also joint pains and muscles, fervescence and arterial pressure, difficulty of breath, a spasm.
Contraindications for administration of drugs, containing vitamin D:
- Organic lesions of heart
- Ulcer of a duodenum and stomach
- Acute diseases of kidneys and liver
The need of adult men and women for vitamin D makes 2,5 mkg a day, to children till three years, pregnant women and nursing mothers need about 10 mkg of substance. People who live in the north, in areas where not enough sun are most subject to deficit of vitamin D.
It is possible to distinguish the following from the main sources of vitamin D:
- Plant origin: nettle, parsley, lucerne;
- Animal origin: caviar, fish oil, cheese, dairy products (the use of dairy products can not always cover all need for vitamin as often they contain insignificant doses), butter, a yolk egg.
As the most serious effects of insufficiency of this vitamin can serve: rickets, softening, etc. Easy forms of deficit involve sleeplessness, development of deterioration in sight, burning in a throat and in a mouth, weight reduction, appetite loss, etc.
As showed recently conducted researches, vitamin D is capable to help an organism with fight against cancer cells. They have special sites which under the influence of vitamin slow down the life activity. Vitamin showed good efficiency during treatment for a breast cancer. Women aged from 50 flyings could fight with this much easier to diseases when at their diet there was a daily requirement of this substance.