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January 3, 2012
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Pneumonia (other name — pneumonia) is an infectious disease at which there is a defeat of alveoluses – bubbles to thin walls which oxygenate blood. Pneumonia is considered to be as one of the most widespread diseases, lungs and system of breath of the person are strongly vulnerable for diseases of infectious character.
There are very many origins of pneumonia - it is bacteria, viruses, intracellular parasites, fungi. Allocate several types of pneumonia, and each of them has special symptoms and character of a current. Also pneumonia is sometimes shown as complication at the person who had flu, cold, bronchitis.
Most often developing of pneumonia is provoked by a pneumococcus or a hemophilic stick. Besides the mycoplasma, a legionella, a chlamydia, etc. can act as the causative agent of pneumonia. Today there are vaccines preventing a disease or much the symptoms facilitating it
In lungs of the healthy person there are a few bacteria. Microorganisms which get to them are destroyed by full-fledged immune system. But if protective functions of an organism do not work in view of certain reasons, at the person pneumonia develops. In view of stated above pneumonia most often occurs at patients with weak immunity, at elderly people and children.
Disease-producing factors get into lungs of the person through respiratory tracts. For example, slime from a mouth which contains bacteria or viruses can get into lungs. A number of causative agents of pneumonia exist in a nasopharynx at healthy people. Also developing of this disease provokes inhalation of air in which there are pathogens. A way of transfer of pneumonia which is caused by a hemophilic stick, airborne.
Development of pneumonia in children of early age is provoked by the following factors: the injuries got at childbirth, a pre-natal hypoxia and asphyxia, inborn heart diseases and a lung, a mucoviscidosis, immunodeficiencies of hereditary character, a hypovitaminosis.
At children at school age pneumonia can develop owing to existence of the chronic centers of an infection in a nasopharynx, bronchitis with recurrence, a mucoviscidosis, an immunodeficiency, the acquired heart diseases.
At adults chronic bronchitis and diseases of lungs, malicious smoking, endocrine diseases, an immunodeficiency, the postponed operative measures in a thorax and an abdominal cavity, alcoholism and drug addiction can provoke developing of pneumonia.
In development of an illness at the person certain symptoms of pneumonia are shown. So, body temperature sharply increases – it can rise to 39-40 degrees, there is cough in the course of which the purulent phlegm is allocated. Also the following symptoms of pneumonia take place: pain in a breast, severe short wind, constant weakness. At night at the patient very strong sweating can be shown. If not to begin treatment of a disease in time, then pneumonia will progress very quickly, and the lethal outcome can even become its result. There are types of this disease at which symptoms of pneumonia are expressed less. In that case the patient can have a dry cough, feeling of weakness, a headache.
Types of pneumonia
Types of pneumonia are determined by the area defeat. So, focal pneumonia occupies only small part of a lung, segmented pneumonia affects one or several segments of a lung, share pneumonia extends to a lung lobe, at drain pneumonia the small centers merge in larger, total pneumonia affects a lung in general.
At an acute pneumonia there is an inflammatory process in pulmonary fabric which, as a rule, has the bacterial nature. The success of therapy of a disease which without fail has to be carried out in a hospital directly depends on that, how timely the patient asked for the help. At a croupous inflammation the illness develops suddenly: at the person body temperature sharply rises, reaching 39 — 40 °C, he feels a stethalgia, the strong fever, dry cough through certain time passing into cough with a phlegm.
Pneumonia at children and at adults can also pass with to some extent the erased symptoms. So, the patient can assume existence of a SARS, however at the same time weakness, the moderate body temperature, cough remain very long time.
Besides distinguish unilateral pneumonia (at the same time one lung is surprised) and bilateral (damage of both lungs takes place). Primary pneumonia arises as an independent illness, and secondary – as the illness which developed against other disease.
Symptoms of pneumonia
In most cases pneumonia at children, and also at adults arises as a result of other illness. A number of the symptoms which are shown at the patient allows to suspect pneumonia. It is necessary to pay special attention to some symptoms of pneumonia. So, at pneumonia cough becomes the most expressed symptom of an illness. The situation has to guard if at the patient there comes improvement after feeling sick during cold, or duration of a catarrhal disease more than seven days.
There are also other symptoms of pneumonia: cough in attempt to inhale deeply, existence of strong pallor of integuments which accompanies usual symptoms of a SARS, existence of an asthma at rather small body temperature. At development of pneumonia in the patient body temperature after acceptance of zharoponizhayuzshchy means does not decrease (paracetamol, an efferalgan, Panadolum).
It is necessary to consider that in the presence of the stated symptoms of pneumonia it is necessary to ask immediately for the help the specialist.
Diagnosis of pneumonia
Today doctors have an opportunity to tocheno diagnose pneumonia by means of different methods of inspection. After the address of the patient the specialist, first of all, conducts detailed survey, listens to the patient. In some doubtful cases clinical blood test, and also radiological inspection is carried out. As additional researches the computer tomography of a thorax, a bronkhoskopiya with the subsequent biopsy, the analysis of urine and other inspections which are appointed by the attending physician is in certain cases carried out.
Results of these researches allow to diagnose pneumonia with high precision.
Treatment of pneumonia
At treatment of pneumonia to become the important success factor selection of an antibiotic, and also a dosage and methods of hit of medicine in the patient's organism. So, antibiotics enter as by injections, and accept in the form of tablets or syrups. Medicines are selected depending on type of the causative agent of pneumonia.
Also in the course of treatment pneumonia a number of medicines which have bronchodilatory properties, vitamin complexes expectorating drugs is applied. After some improvement of a state when at the patient body temperature is normalized, treatment of pneumonia includes physioprocedures and medical massage. On condition of use of these methods improvement comes much quicker. After recovery to the patient in certain cases appoint repeated carrying out a X-ray with the purpose to make sure of success of treatment.
The field the termination of a basic course of treatment of pneumonia to the patient is appointed additional reception of a vitamin complex within a month. In the course of the course of pneumonia in an organism a large number of useful microorganisms which produce vitamins of group B perishes.
Every day occupations are recommended to the people who had pneumonia by special respiratory gymnastics. It exercises which promote strengthening of mobility of a thorax, and also stretching of commissures which could be formed owing to an illness. Breathing exercises are shown in particular to patients of old age. Also people after the postponed illness to a thicket should be in the fresh air.
On condition of the correct approach to treatment recovery happens in 3 — 4 weeks after an onset of the illness.
Food at pneumonia
In parallel with a course of drug treatment sick pneumonia recommends observance of some principles in food that allows to achieve more effective results of treatment. So, in the period of the acute course of pneumonia to the patient is shown to keep to a diet which energy value does not exceed 1600 — 1800 kcal. To reduce inflammatory process, it is necessary to limit the salt use (a day sick enough 6 g of salt), and also to increase quantity of products in a diet blackcurrant, a gooseberry, a dogrose, greens, a citrus, lemons, raspberry, etc. reckon with the high content of vitamins C and R. Osobenno as valuable products. Not less important and observance of the drinking mode – in day it is necessary to drink not less than two liters of liquid. To provide the content of the necessary amount of calcium in an organism, once you use more dairy products, and at the same time to switch off from a dish diet, containing oxalic acid.
It is necessary to eat in the small portions, six times a day. During treatment of pneumonia vegetables, fruit, berries, a fruit drink from a cranberry, tea reckon with a lemon, milk dishes, eggs, porridges and mucous broths from grain, low-fat meat and fish broths as especially useful dishes and products. It is not necessary to use rich pastries, fat, salty and smoked products, fats, chocolate, spices.
In process recovery a diet of the patient needs to be made more caloric at the expense of additional proteins, and also it is necessary to use products which improve secretion of a stomach and pancreas.
Complications of pneumonia
As complications of pneumonia patients can have a number of serious conditions: abscess and gangrene of a lung, pleura empyema, pleurisy, manifestations of acute respiratory insufficiency, endocarditis, meningitis, pericardis, sepsis, fluid lungs. If the scheme of treatment was picked up incorrectly, or at the patient the expressed immunodeficiency takes place, pneumonia can lead to death.
Prevention of pneumonia
Methods of prevention of pneumonia match prevention of bronchitis and acute respiratory infections. Children it is necessary to temper gradually and regularly, since the earliest age. Important also immunity strengthening, and also the prevention of the factors provoking a condition of an immunodeficiency.
Tendency to microfibrinferments is considered risk factor of an acute pneumonia that takes place at a constant bed rest and reception of a number of drugs (Infecundinum, Bisecurinum, Rigevidonum). To warn an acute pneumonia in this case, it is recommended to carry out every day physiotherapy exercises, breathing exercises, massage. Special attention should be paid on prevention of pneumonia at patients at advanced age in view of decrease in T and V-immunity.
Section: Diseases of a respiratory organs