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Diseases of the alimentary system
Life activity of the person directly depends on timely receipt in its organism of nutrients, microelements, vitamins. This process is provided by digestive organs. That functioning of all bodies and systems was normal, the alimentary system of the person has to run smoothly. Therefore, any diseases of system of digestion it is necessary to diagnose and treat timely.
Structure of digestive organs
Bodies of system of digestion are subdivided into several departments. The initial stage of process of digestion occurs in an oral cavity where the food is processed initially. Further the food gets into a throat and a gullet, moving to a stomach.
The stomach — the body consisting of muscles, and in his internal cavity is many glands producing hydrochloric acid and a gastric juice. Under the influence of these liquids there is a splitting of food then it moves ahead in a duodenum. It is initial department of intestines where the food is affected by bile, pancreatic juice.
The longest department of system of digestion is the small intestine where the food is split completely, and useful substances are soaked up in blood of the person. In a large intestine digestion comes to the end: there the undigested remains of what was eaten by the person get. They leave from an organism as a result of the movement of a large intestine.
Digestion happens under the influence of a number of digestive glands — a pancreas, a liver, salivary and microscopic glands. The liver produces bile, and the pancreas produces insulin and enzymes under the influence of which there is a splitting of fats, proteins, carbohydrates. Sialadens are responsible for mitigation of food.
If the system of digestion of the person functions harmoniously and accurately, then the condition of an organism is normal. But now diseases of system of digestion owing to disturbance in work of a gastrointestinal tract develop at the person very often. The most frequent disturbances of this kind are gastritis, a reflux an esophagitis, a duodenitis, a peptic ulcer of a duodenum and stomach, erosive bulbit, dysbacteriosis, impassability of intestines, food poisoning and other illnesses. All these diseases it is necessary to treat correctly and timely, otherwise owing to disturbance of hit in blood of nutrients the organism in general suffers.
Diseases of the alimentary system define very many specific factors. However doctors allocate a variety of reasons, illnesses of this type, characteristic of the majority. They are subdivided on external and internal.
The crucial role is played in this case by the external reasons. First of all, those is impact on an organism of low-quality food, liquids, medicamentous drugs.
Diseases of the alimentary system can become an effect of inadequate diet of food in which surplus or a lack of receipt in an organism of fats, proteins, carbohydrates is noted. Sometimes diseases of these bodies are shown also owing to long irregular food, too frequent inclusion in a diet of the salty, very hot, hot dishes which are negatively influencing a condition of the alimentary system. Symptoms of diseases of a gastrointestinal tract can provoke availability of preservatives in those products which the person eats every day. For this reason prevention of this type of diseases at children and adults provides the minimum quantity of such products in a diet. And at the slightest manifestations of symptoms of diseases of the alimentary system the list of undesirable products increases.
The negative impact is exerted also by some liquids. Illnesses of digestive organs are provoked, first of all, by the alcoholic beverages and substitutes of those, aerated water and other drinks containing a large amount of dyes and preservatives.
Besides, influence of microorganisms and hearts which hit in an organism most often happens at the use of the infected food is the external reasons. Under the influence of viral and bacterial infections in an organism specific and nonspecific diseases develop. At the same time worms (tape-worms, roundworms, flukes) parasitize in an organism, worsening its general state.
Provocative factor is tobacco smoking, and also regular stressful situations and experiences.
Genetic factors, defects of pre-natal development, development in an organism of autoimmune processes are the internal reasons of diseases of bodies of the alimentary system.
As a rule, one disease of the alimentary system develops owing to influence several different reasons. One specific reason can be defined only at infectious diseases and at infection with parasites.
At development in the person of diseases of system of digestion by the main symptom who demonstrates their manifestation pain of different intensity which arises on the course of a digestive tract are considered. Such sign is defined practically at all diseases, however its character, depending on what disease of the alimentary system develops, can differ.
So, at cholecystitis pain develops in hypochondrium, left or right. Pancreatitis is shown by the girdle pain which does not have exact localization, it can sometimes give to the area of heart or between a shovel. At some diseases pain happens aching, in other cases, for example, at perforation of stomach ulcer, pain very sharp and intensive. Sometimes pain depends on meal. Patients with cholecystitis or pancreatitis suffer after reception fat. At a peptic ulcer of a stomach pain amplifies if the person does not eat throughout a long time. At hyperacid gastritis pain, on the contrary, abates after the use by the patient of milk.
Dyspepsia — one more common symptom at gastrointestinal tract diseases. Physicians define upper and lower dyspepsia. Upper dyspepsia is shown at the patient with heartburn, a constant eructation, periodically arising vomiting and nausea. Also the discomfort and feeling of overpopulation in epigastric area, a dysphagy, appetite loss is noted.
Displays of the lower dyspepsia are a feeling of a raspiraniye in a stomach, a meteorism, a lock, diarrhea. Besides, at diseases of the alimentary system at the person can change colors of a chair, develop rashes and other changes on skin. It is possible to speak about symptoms by consideration of a specific disease of system of digestion of the person more precisely.
Initially at suspicion on development of diseases of the alimentary system the doctor surely performs careful inspection of the patient. In the course of survey the palpation, percussion, auscultation practices. It is necessary to ask in detail on complaints, to study the anamnesis.
As a rule, at diseases of this type to the patient carrying out laboratory researches is appointed (the general and biochemical blood tests, carrying out the general the analysis of urine, the analysis a calla). Widely in the course of diagnosis also beam methods of research practice. An informative method is ultrasonic research of abdominal organs, carrying out a X-ray analysis, roentgenoscopy using contrast agents, KT, MPT. Depending on a disease also the procedures allowing to estimate a condition of internals of system of digestion can be appointed and at the same time to receive material for carrying out a biopsy. It is a kolonoskopiya, an ezofagogastroduodenoskopiya, a rektoromanoskopiya, a laparoscopy.
For the purpose of inspection of a stomach use of the functional tests allowing to obtain detailed information on acid secretion of a stomach, its motor function, and also on a condition of a pancreas, a small bowel practices.
The scheme of treatment of diseases of system of digestion is appointed depending on what illness was diagnosed for the patient. However at any disease it is important to appoint therapy timely to avoid complications and transition of an illness to a chronic form. After carrying out researches the doctor, proceeding from the received results, appoints the scheme of therapy. Very important stage of treatment at the majority of diseases of a gastrointestinal tract is special dietary food. If at the patient the acute form of an illness takes place, to it the parenteral food providing intake of useful substances directly in blood can be appointed to some time. Further, in process of recovery, there takes place normal food, but all products which can provoke an exacerbation of an illness are excluded from a diet.
Often treatment happens step-by-step. So, at acute gastritis it is initially necessary to normalize the gastrointestinal tract secretory function then to the patient the course of treatment antibiotics is appointed. Further, at the third stage, it accepts the means promoting renewal of cells of a mucous membrane of a stomach, and also recovery of a normal metabolism in an organism.
Diseases of bodies digestion sometimes can be cured for several weeks, in other cases treatment continues even till some years. It is especially important to diagnose diseases of digestive organs for children in time to minimize duration of a course of treatment.
Often the complex treatment bringing the most noticeable results practices in a case detection of diseases of a gastrointestinal tract. So, at stomach ulcer initially the patient has to take care of elimination of those reasons which provoked a course of a disease. Further to it the course of treatment medicines in a complex with a rigid diet is appointed. At the same time use of other methods — physical therapy, a magnetotherapy, laser therapy, etc. practices.
In general for ensuring successful treatment of the patient has to understand that in his life there is extremely important a prevention of an exacerbation of diseases of a gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is necessary to correct significantly way of life in general. It both food, and day regimen, and addictions.
Recently also diseases at which there are no clinical signs of which it was talked above are diagnosed. The so-called chronic ischemic disease of digestive organs is the illness provoked by damage of visceral arteries of belly part of an aorta. The ischemic disease of the alimentary system leads to disturbance of passability of visceral arteries. Therefore it is important to carry out careful diagnosis not to miss an opportunity to appoint the correct treatment. A certain diet is recommended to such patients (is often and gradually, not to use the food conducting to a meteorism). In the course of treatment apply drugs spasmolysants, and also drugs which normalize blood circulation.
If conservative therapy does not give due effect, then at many diseases of a digestive tract carrying out surgical interventions practices. Both low-traumatic, and band operations are carried out.
Prevention of diseases of the digestive system is, first of all, the correct approach to the organization of daily food and a healthy lifestyle in general. It is important to throw addictions, to show physical activity every day, to get enough sleep and have a rest fully.
Important measure of prevention — regular visit of planned routine inspections. And, it is necessary to do it even if alarming symptoms are not shown. It is desirable for people who already were 40 years old to do ultrasonography of abdominal organs every year.
It is very important to eat properly. The diet has to be balanced and the most various. In food it is worth observing moderation, that is to feeling of full satiety it is impossible to gorge on. That the alimentary system worked well-coordinated, it is important to include every day in a diet crude fruit and vegetables. The food has to be always freshen, and it is necessary eat food, slowly and without being distracted by foreign affairs, at the same time carefully chewing it. There are doctors recommend 4-5 times a day, and, it is necessary to try to do it at the same time. It is better to exclude very cold and very hot food from a diet. It is also desirable to refuse the refined carbohydrates and very salty dishes gradually.