Bile represents the substance produced by liver cells. Through bilious channels this substance gets into a duodenum where participates in digestion process, and in a gall bladder where it collects. Normal the liver of the adult excretes from 1 to 1,5 liters of bile, however depending on a state of health this indicator can change. Its color can differ depending on many factors: bile happens green, yellow, brown, it a little viscous, has a pungent specific smell and bitter taste.

Bile is the important removing substance: thanks to it medicines, poisons, human body metabolic products can be removed from an organism. Bilification in an organism occurs constantly, it can increase during meal, but also without it bile continues to be produced: in that case it only collects in a gall bladder. Its volume small – only 40-50 ml, but bile is stored there in very concentrated look therefore it is enough that in case of an urgent need to perevarivarit a large number of food.

Conditionally bile can be divided on young and mature. Under the first the substance which is just emitted to cookies, under the second – left a gall bladder is understood.

Bile acids, water, phospholipids, proteins, metals, salts, enzymes and other substances are a part of bile. Thanks to the structure bile is capable to digest food, that is to provide change gastric on intestinal digestion. Each of components of bile is engaged in performance of a certain function: bile acid, for example, emulsifies fats, improves products of slime and motility of a small bowel, together with bile cholesterol, bilirubin and other substances which cannot be filtered by kidneys is removed from an organism.

Biliation depends on quantity of the arrived food, and also secretin – special hormone, developed by walls of a small intestine.


Zhelchekamenny illness – one of the most often found diseases connected with bile. There is it because of bile, unbalanced on structure, – litogenny. Its emergence is provoked by the improper feeding broken by a metabolism, excess weight, hypodynamias, destructions of kidneys, etc.

Duodenogastralny reflux – hit of bile in a gullet. As a result the mucous membrane of a stomach collapses under the influence of aggressive substances, and at the patient the reflux gastritis is formed.

The steatorrhea represents lack of bile or a shortcoming to it acids therefore absorption of fats is slowed down and they will be allocated with a stake, in an organism shortage of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids is formed, intestines pathologies develop, coagulability of blood, etc. decreases.


For research of bile use a method of sounding which procedure consists of five stages:

  • Basal, that is in a quiet state without irritants, biliation during which contents of a duodenum are allocated from the general channel. Takes 10-15 min.
  • Phase of the closed Oddi's sphincter. Takes several minutes.
  • Fence of the first portion of bile (A) – several milliliters of light brown color.
  • Fence of the second portion of bile – vesical (a portion In). To last 20-30 min.
  • Release of hepatic bile – brightly green, a phase lasts 10-20 min.