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Fats represent organic compounds which belong to the class of lipids and consist of monobasic monobasic fatty acids and ethers of glycerin. Fats carry out the following functions:
- Power (accumulation or emission of energy, fats are energy accumulators)
- Structural (structure of subcellular organellas, membranes of cells) Termoizoliruyushchiya (due to low heat conduction that gives the chance to some animals with a reserve of fat to endure frosts) and other functions.
Along with proteins and carbohydrates, fats are considered as one of the main making components of cells of microorganisms, plants and animals. They are badly soluble in water, partially in ethanol, and well soluble in solvents of an organic origin.
Fats of a natural origin contain the following acids:
- Saturated fatty acids (palmitic, margaric, stearin)
- Unsaturated fatty acids (arachidonic, linoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic, olein).
Fats are the major power supply for mammals. Ensuring their absorption, requires emulsification of fats, that is their crushing which happens thanks to bile acids. Energy value of this connection is rather high: it is twice more, than at carbohydrates (9 and 4 calories for gram respectively). Full refusal of fats in a diet can lead to very negative effects: for example, all fat-soluble substances in an organism will cease to be processed therefore there are many diseases. Excess consumption of fats is also undesirable for an organism as its adjournment happens not only on a hypodermic fatty tissue, but also on internals and excess weight in general bears health hazard.
Process of splitting of fats in an organism takes rather long time, so to be available to enzymes, fat it is necessary on smaller components. In an insignificant size fat can be soaked up in not split look.
The age, energy costs, kind of activity in many respects influence daily need of the person for fat consumption. Elderly people, for example, are not recommended to use 75-80 gr. fats in days. For young people this indicator can increase by 30-50%. About 30% of the general consumption of fats have to make vegetable. It is necessary to remember that products, fat-rich, the huge set, and the majority modern is fats much more, than it is necessary.
Fats are widely used in various industries:
- Pharmaceutics (as directly medicine or vitamin drug, for example, fish oil as excipients);
- In the food industry (practically in all types)
- In the cosmetic industry (production of soap, creams, etc.)
- Production of lubricants