And whether you know...
The tumor is malignant
November 29, 2011
That tumor which can render very hazardous to health of the person admits malignant, leading up up to a lethal outcome. Its name also follows from such definition. This tumor consists of malignant cells. Quite often any malignant tumor is called by mistake cancer while not any tumor is cancer, and concept of a tumor much wider.
The malignant new growth represents a disease of which uncontrolled cell fission is characteristic. Such breeding cells begin to extend on all organism, getting into surrounding fabrics, and through a lymph flow, a blood stream or the mixed way to reach practically any body. Process of such movement of sick cells is called innidiation, and cells – metastasises. Usually this illness contacts growth of cells of fabric and their differentiation as a result of genetic disorders.
Still development of medicines which would help to cope with malignant new growths is one of paramount problems of pharmacology.
It is a little history
The first descriptions of malignant new growths, namely cancer, were described in 1600 B.C. on the Egyptian papyrus. It was the story about a breast cancer marked that from this disease there is no medicine. As a result of introduction of the term "carcinoma" by Hippocrates which designated a malignant tumor with an inflammation and there was a term "cancer". It described several types of cancer, and also one more concept – "онкос" is entered that gave a basis to the modern word "oncology". The famous Roman doctor Cornelius Zels suggested to treat still B.C. at early stages cancer an oncotomy, and on late – at all not to treat.
Symptoms of a malignant tumor depend on the place of its arrangement, and also on a development stage. As a rule, only at late stages patients begin to feel pain, at early stages very often the tumor does not prove in any way.
The most frequent symptoms of malignant new growths:
- Unusual consolidation or swelling, inflammation, bleeding in the place of a tumor
- Symptoms of metastasises: increase in a liver, changes and an ostealgia, neurologic symptoms, increase in lymph nodes, cough, sometimes with blood
- Exhaustion, loss of weight and appetite, anemia, hyperhidrosis, immunomorbid conditions
Malignant new growths possess the following properties:
- Possibility of penetration into nearby and distant bodies as a result of innidiation
- Forming of metastasises
- Tendency to uncontrollable rapid growth which has destructive character damages and squeezes surrounding bodies and fabrics
- Have influence on all organism because of synthesis of release of toxins a tumor which can suppress immunity, lead to intoxication of the person, exhaustion, depressions
- Ability to resist immune system of an organism, deceiving the special T-killernye mechanism of a cell
- Existence of considerable quantity of mutations in malignant tumors which increase with its growth.
- Low or full immaturity of cells. The below given to show, the subjects "zlokachestvenny" the tumor is, the it expands quicker and metastasizes, but at the same time more sensitively to himio – and radiotheraphy.
- Existence of the expressed atipizm of cells, that is cellular or fabric abnormality
- The expressed process formation of new blood vessels in a tumor that brings to frequent hemorrhage
Malignant tumors are result of a malignancy – malignant transformation of usual cells. These cells begin to breed uncontrolledly and not to be exposed to programmable cellular death – apoptosis. One or several mutations cause malignant transformation, these mutations force cells to share unlimited number of times and at the same time to remain live. In time such malignant transformation distinguished by immune system can rescue an organism from developing of a tumor, but if it does not occur, the tumor begins to grow and in an effect to metastasize. Absolutely in all fabrics metastasises can be formed, but the most widespread places are lungs, a liver, bones, a brain.
Cancer at children's age
Some tumors most often develop at teenagers, the leukosis, Vilms's tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, a rhabdomyosarcoma, a retinoblastoma, etc. can be an example of such type of a malignant new growth. For the first five years of life the probability of incidence is highest.
Types of new growths and frequency of incidence
By the form cells from which there are malignant tumors they can be classified as follows:
- Melanoma – from melanocytes
- Carcinoma — from epithelial cells
- Sarcoma – from cells of muscles, bones, connecting fabrics
- Lymphoma – from lymphatic cells
- The leukosis – arises from stem cells of a brain
- Teratoma – formative cells participate
- Choriocarcinoma – from a placenta
Among men and women various forms of cancer are had various prevalence. The prostate cancer most often occurs at men - it is 33% of all forms of malignant new growths, on the second place – lung cancer – 31%. Women are usually affected by a breast cancer which makes a third of all cases of cancer then there is a rectum, a uterus, ovaries, etc.
The basis of prevention of emergence of malignant new growths consists in the maximum barrier of the person from carcinogens, decrease in exposure doses, a healthy lifestyle, chemoprophylaxis and preventive researches.
Lung cancer, for example, in most cases is a consequence of smoking. In combination with bad ecology and low-quality food stuffs the risk of development of malignant new growths increases even more. As showed epidemiological research, 30% of deaths which are connected with new growths, it was caused by smoking. Thus, the probability of developing of lung cancer at the smoking person exceeds such probability at non-smoking, at the same time cancer of phonatory bands three times, a gullet and an oral cavity is also observed generally at the population smoker.
Recent researches showed that the significant role in oncology is played by viruses. Hepatitis B, for example, can lead to a liver cancer, a virus of papilloma of the person – to a cancer of a neck of uterus.
Malignant new growths of different bodies it is diagnosed differently.
- Diagnosis of a breast cancer is made by independent survey every week, mammography also becomes.
- Diagnosis of malignant new growths of testicles can also independently be made.
- The cancer of a body, neck and uterine fundus, large intestine is diagnosed by means of the endoscope. Even in spite of the fact that not all intestines can be investigated the endoscope, such checks improve the forecast and reduce incidence.
- New growths on a throat come to light and investigated by a special guttural mirror during visit of the ENT specialist. The biopsy is a compulsory procedure in case of detection of a tumor. Fibrolaringoskopiya is more exact method, its essence consists in survey by the flexible endoscope. The throat under a microscope is examined when the patient is under anesthetic, this method is called a direct mikrolaringoskopiya. As a major factor of risk in cancer cases of a throat serves smoking, generally long.
- Diagnosis of a prostate cancer at an early stage is carried out through an anus by independent research, by the specialist ultrasonic research, and also screening can be appointed to existence of onkomarter. However, this technique was not widely adopted because it can reveal very small, safe malignant new growths. Can lead removals of a prostate as a result of emergence of a malignant new growth to development of an incontience and impotence.
A form of cancer can be revealed on the basis of a genetic test which will show whether the person has a tendency to that or a form of cancer.
One of the last developments in the field of diagnosis of malignant new growths at early stages is immunomagnetic enrichment of a sample and identification of single tumor cells which circulate in blood. This method is generally used at 3-4 stages of breast cancer, thick and a rectum, a prostate gland. It allows to determine the level of cancer cells in blood.
Final diagnosis of a malignant new growth is made on the basis of results of a biopsy – withdrawal of a sample of fabric.
Treatment of malignant new growths
In many cases disposal of a malignant new growth – a task quite feasible. But there are also cases when cancer leads to death. A determinal factor is cancer degree. Some forms, for example, the carcinoma cutaneum, is practically in 100% of cases curable at the first stage. The oncotomy is made practically in all cases, at the same time also the part of healthy fabrics as they can be also struck with cancer cells is usually taken. Removal can be made both by a scalpel, and a laser beam which is more sparing. One more type of treatment consists in suppression of growth of cells which quickly share, forming a tumor – chemotherapy. The radiotheraphy consists in radiation of malignant cells using gamma-rays, electrons and neutrons which get deeply. Hormonal therapy is used in certain cases when cells of a new growth are capable to react to influence of various hormones. In itself it is not capable to relieve the person of a tumor, but is capable to suspend its growth and to prolong to the person life. Also cryotherapy, an immunotherapy, national and non-standard a treatment method is applied.