Zovirax

Зовиракс Drug photo

The description is actual on 30.04.2016

  • Latin name: Zovirax
  • ATH code: D06BB03
  • Active ingredient: Acyclovir (Aciclovir)
  • Producer: Glaxo Wellcome Operations (Great Britain), GlaxoSmithKline Manufacturing S.p.A. (Italy), Draxis Pharma Inc., Dzhubilant Hollisterstir General Partnership (Canada)

Structure

  • 200 mg of an acyclovir are a part of 1 tablet of the drug Zovirax. Additional components: K30 povidone, monohydrate of lactose, sodium starch glycollate, microcrystallic cellulose, magnesium stearate.
  • As a part of 1 gram of cream Zovirax is 50 mg of an acyclovir. Auxiliary components: dimetikon, paraffin white, propylene glycol, cetostearyl alcohol, half-oxameasures 407, liquid paraffin, sodium lauryl sulfate, macrogoal stearate, monostearate of a glitserol, water.
  • As a part of 1 gram of ointment Zovirax contains 30 mg of an acyclovir. Auxiliary components: white vaseline.
  • In 1 bottle with lyophilisate for preparation of injections of Zovirax there are 250 mg of an acyclovir. Auxiliary components: sodium hydroxide.

Release form

White biconvex tablets of a round form, with an engraving of "GXCL3".

  • 5 tablets in planimetric packaging, 5 packagings in a paper pack.

White homogeneous external use cream of 5%.

  • 2 grams of cream in a plastic bottle plastic with the doser; one bottle in a paper pack.
  • 2, 5 or 10 grams of cream in an aluminum tuba, 1 tuba in a paper pack.

White, translucent, homogeneous, oily ointment, with a slight smell, not containing lumps, grains or foreign inclusions.

  • 4,5 grams of cream in a tuba with a nozzle from plastic, 1 tuba in a paper pack.

Lyophilisate for preparation of injections represents white powder (hydroscopic or in the form of caked weight).

  • 250 mg of powder in a glass bottle, 5 bottles in a plastic tray; one tray in a cardboard pack.

Pharmacological action

Antiviral action.

Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics

Pharmacodynamics

Anti-virus drug, artificial analog of a nucleoside of purine type which has ability to slow down replication of the herpes simplex viruses (HSV) of all types, Varicella zoster, a cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Burra. The acyclovir possesses most expressed antiviral properties against a virus of herpes of the first type.

Effect of drug on viruses vysokoizbiratelno. The thymidinekinase of the cells infected with the specified viruses turns acyclovir molecules into monophosphate, then is consecutive in diphosphate and triphosphate under the influence of cell enzymes. Inclusion of triphosphate of active agent in a chain of DNA of a virus and the subsequent break of this chain block copying of virus DNA.

At patients with a pronounced immunodeficiency long or repeated courses of treatment an acyclovir are capable to lead to emergence of strains, resistant to drug. At many strains with reduced sensitivity to Zovirax it was noted low concentration of a virus thymidinekinase.

Zovirax pharmacokinetics in tablets and injections

At oral administration active ingredient is only partially soaked up from intestines. Content in cerebrospinal fluid is equal to about a half from its plasma concentration. Contacts blood proteins in insignificant degree (10-33%).

The main metabolite is the 9-карбоксиметокси-methylguanine. Time of semi-removal makes 2,7-3,3 hours. The most part of drug is allocated with kidneys in not changed form. It is removed not only thanks to glomerular filtering, but also at way of canalicular secretion.

At persons with chronic insufficiency of work of kidneys time of semi-removal of an acyclovir comes by 19,5 o'clock. At elderly patients the clearance of an acyclovir decreases with age, however time of semi-removal changes slightly.

Ointment pharmacokinetics Zovirax

After use of an oculentum active agent is quickly soaked up by okologlazny fabrics and an epithelium of a cornea then in liquid in an eye the concentration of medicine necessary for oppression of a virus is created. The acyclovir at such way of introduction is defined in urine in very small concentration which does not have clinical value.

Cream pharmacokinetics Zovirax

At repeated use of cream with an acyclovir system absorption is minimum.

Indications to use

Indications to use of the tableted drug form:

  • therapy of infectious defeats of Varicella zoster (virus of the surrounding herpes and chicken pox);
  • therapy of infectious damages of skin and mucous VPG of all types, including genital herpes in primary and recurrent forms;
  • the prevention of recurrence of infectious defeats of VPG of all types, at persons with normal immunity or an immunodeficiency;
  • therapy of patients with severe forms of an immunodeficiency, generally with HIV infection (at CD4+ less than 200 C / mkl with early displays of HIV infection and clinic of AIDS) or after a bone marrow transplantation.

Indications to ointment use Zovirax:

Indications to cream use Zovirax:

  • infectious defeats of VPG of all types of skin and mucous, including herpes of lips.

Indications to lyophilisate use Zovirax for preparation of injections:

  • therapy of infectious defeats of VPG of all types;
  • prevention of infectious defeats of VPG of all types of skin and mucous at persons with an immunodeficiency;
  • therapy of infectious defeats of Varicella zoster;
  • therapy of infectious defeats of VPG of all types at newborns;
  • the prevention of a tsitomegalovirusny infection after a bone marrow transplantation.

Contraindications

  • Allergy to an acyclovir or Valatsiklovir or components of drug.
  • Contraindications at intravenous administration of means: a renal failure, dehydration, reactions to intravenous administration of cytotoxic drugs (including in the past), neurologic disturbances, pregnancy.
  • Contraindications at oral administration of means: renal failure, dehydration.

Side effects

Side effects when using tablets and lyophilisate

  • Reactions from digestion: vomiting, nausea, diarrhea and abdominal (at oral administration).
  • Reactions from a hemopoiesis: leukopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia.
  • Hypersensitivity reactions: rash, fever, an itch, short wind, a Quincke's edema, an anaphylaxis, urticaria, a photosensitization, heavy inflammatory reactions in the place of parenteral administration.
  • Reactions from kidneys: increase of concentration of creatinine and urea in blood. To avoid such phenomena, it is necessary to appoint instead of an intravenous single-step injection slower introduction within 1 hour. The renal failure provoked by intravenous administrations of Zovirax usually is stopped by carrying out a regidratation or reduction of a dosage of drug.
  • Reactions from a liver: temporary increase of content of bilirubin and liver enzymes, hepatitis and jaundice (it is rare at parenteral administration).
  • Reactions from nervous activity: psychosis, confusion of consciousness, a tremor, nervous excitement, drowsiness, spasms, hallucinations, a coma, a headache (at oral administration).
  • Other reactions: fatigue, hair loss.

Side effects when using ointment for eyes

  • Reactions from immunity: reactions of hypersensitivity up to an angioneurotic syndrome.
  • Reactions from sight: a dot keratopathy (passes without effects and does not demand a treatment stop), easy temporary burning, conjunctivitis, a blepharitis.

Side effects when using cream

  • Local reactions: a temporary itch, reddening, burning, a peeling, a pricking in the field of drawing.
  • Allergic reactions: dermatitis, Quincke's edema.

Application instruction of Zovirax (Way and dosage)

Tablets Zovirax, application instruction

The pill Zovirax is taken orally, washing down 200 ml of water, during food.

At treatment of infectious defeats of VPG appoint on 200 mg of medicine everyone in 4 hours, five times a day. The standard course of treatment is equal to 5 days, but at heavy infections it is authorized to prolong it. In the presence of the expressed immunodeficiency or at malabsorptions from intestines the dosage of Zovirax can be raised to 400 mg with preservation of former frequency rate of reception. Treatment consults to begin as fast as possible after development of an infection; at recurrence medicine is recommended to be taken already at emergence of the first symptoms.

For the prevention of recurrence of infectious defeats of VPG at persons with normal immunity recommend 200 mg of drug four times a day through identical intervals of time. Much suit more convenient schedule of reception — 400 mg twice a day. In certain cases there are effective low dosages of means — 200 mg 3-2 times a day. At a number of patients interruption of development of an infection can arise at reception of the general dose of 800 mg a day.

Therapy by Zovirax needs to be stopped periodically for 6–12 months for the purpose of identification of changes during an infection.

For the prevention of recurrence of infectious defeats of VPG at persons with an immunodeficiency appoint 200 mg of medicine four times a day. In the presence of the expressed immunodeficiency or at malabsorption from intestines the dosage can be raised to fivefold 400 mg of drug a day. Time of preventive treatment is defined by duration of infectious dangerous period.

At therapy of the surrounding herpes and chicken pox appoint fivefold reception of 800 mg of drug a day (except time of a night dream). Duration of such treatment makes one week. It is necessary to appoint drug as fast as possible after the beginning of an infection because in this case therapy is most effective.

For treatment of patients with severe forms of an immunodeficiency appoint quadruple reception of 800 mg of drug a day through identical periods. The persons who transferred a bone marrow transplantation before purpose of Zovirax in tablets are usually recommended to complete a monthly course of parenteral therapy by Zovirax. The maximum duration of treatment after a bone marrow transplantation was equal to 6 months. At patients with the developed clinic of HIV infection duration of treatment made 1 year.

To patients with severe forms of a renal failure about 200 mg twice a day are recommended to lower a dosage of Zovirax.

At treatment of the surrounding herpes and chicken pox, and also at treatment of persons with the expressed immunodeficiency standard dosages make:

  • the expressed renal failure – 800 mg twice a day;
  • moderate form of a renal failure – 800 mg three times a day.

Oculentum Zovirax, application instruction

The oculentum Zovirax is located in a conjunctival sac with a strip of 10 mm to 5 times a day. Treatment is recommended to continue after recovery at least 3 more days.

Cream Zovirax, application instruction

Cream Zovirax is applied with a cotton plug or previously washed up hands in order to avoid a reinfitsirovaniye of the struck areas.

A small amount of medicine is applied on areas of skin, struck and close to them, and mucous to 5 times a day.

Treatment duration as a rule makes 4 days. In the absence of healing it can be prolonged till 10 days. If after 10 days of treatment symptoms of a disease remain, it is necessary to consult with the doctor.

Lyophilisate Zovirax for preparation of injections, the application instruction

The prepared solution is entered intravenously. At persons with obesity the same dosages, as at persons with a normal weight are used.

For treatment of infectious defeats by VPG and a virus of the surrounding herpes, the drug is administered intravenously three times a day in a dose of 5 mg/kg of weight.

For treatment of infectious defeats by a virus of the surrounding herpes and herpetic encephalitis at persons with an immunodeficiency medicine is entered intravenously three times a day in a dose of 10 mg/kg of weight.

For the prevention of a tsitomegalovirusny infection at a bone marrow transplantation the drug is administered intravenously three times a day in a dose of 500 mg/sq.m of the area of a body. Therapy begins from 5 in the afternoon before change and continues till 30 in the afternoon after change.

To pay special attention to decrease in dosages of Zovirax at elderly persons with reduced creatinine clearance.

At persons with a renal failure it is necessary to appoint intravenous administration of Zovirax with care. The dosage will be changed depending on insufficiency degree of manifestation.

The therapy course Zovirax in the form of intravenous infusions is usually equal to 5 days, but can be adjusted depending on a condition of the patient and the response to therapy. Duration of preventive treatment is defined by duration of the infectious and dangerous period.

Preparation of solution and method of introduction

Zovirax needs to be entered intravenously, slowly, more than 1 hour.

To prepare drug solution with concentration of active agent of 25 mg/ml it is necessary to add 10 ml of water or physical solution in an ampoule with powder and to shake up carefully before full dissolution of contents.

Other method of infusional introduction is possible: the prepared solution is diluted further to concentration of 5 mg/ml. For this purpose it is necessary to add the prepared solution to one of infusion solutions and to shake up for a full pereshivaniye of solutions. For adults consults to apply infusion solutions in packages on 100 ml, despite receiving cultivation of an acyclovir less than 0,5%.
Zovirax for intravenous administration is compatible to the following solutions and remains stable for 12 hours at a temperature of 15-24 °C:

  • 0,18% sodium chloride and 4% glucose;
  • 0,45% sodium chloride and 2,5% glucose;
  • 0,45% or 0,9% sodium chloride;
  • Hartman's solution.

Overdose

There are no data on overdose by drug in the form of cream or an oculentum.

Overdose by tablets

At single accidental oral administration in a dose to 20 grams of undesirable effects is not registered.

Overdose signs: nausea, vomiting, headache, short wind, confusion of consciousness, disorder of function of kidneys, diarrhea, spasms, lethargy, coma.

Careful supervision for the purpose of early detection of possible symptoms of intoxication is necessary. Use of a hemodialysis is not excluded.

Overdose by solution

Overdose signs: increase of maintenance of an urea nitrogen and creatinine in blood, a hallucination, a renal failure, confusion of consciousness, a spasm, excitement, a coma.

Carrying out a hemodialysis which considerably strengthens evacuation of an acyclovir from an organism and is an optimum method of therapy at overdose by injection forms of Zovirax is recommended.

Interaction

Any significant medicinal interactions when using drug did not come to light.

The acyclovir is removed in urine in not changed look thanks to canalicular secretion. All means with a similar way of removal can increase concentration of an acyclovir in blood.

It is necessary to combine with care intravenous administration of Zovirax with the means breaking work of kidneys (Cyclosporine, Takrolimus and others).

Terms of sale

Cream is released without recipe. Other forms of drug can be got only according to the recipe.

Storage conditions

To store at the room temperature in the dry place. To protect from children.

Period of validity

5 years.

Special instructions

The patients accepting drug orally in high doses have to use the sufficient volume of liquid.

Emergence of burning directly after use of an oculentum which usually passes spontaneously is not excluded.

During therapy carrying contact lenses is forbidden by drug.

In order that the therapeutic effect was maximum, it is necessary to begin to use drug already at initial symptoms of a disease (a pricking, an itch, burning, reddening).

At the expressed symptoms of herpes of lips it is necessary to consult surely with the doctor.

At therapy of genital herpes consults to refrain from sexual contacts or to apply condoms as use of an acyclovir does not protect from infection with a disease sexually.

Cream does not consult to put on mucous a mouth and eyes because emergence of a local inflammation is possible.

Patients with an immunodeficiency at therapy of any infectious defeats have to adhere to recommendations of the attending physician.

At the persons with herpetic encephalitis accepting Zovirax in big dosages it is necessary to control work of kidneys constantly.

Ready solution of drug has rn equal 11 therefore it is forbidden to be applied inside.

Analogs of Zovirax

Cheaper analogs of Zovirax are listed below: Atsigerpin (analog for lips), the Acyclovir (cream, an oculentum, tablets), Gerperaks (ointment), Belupo's Acyclovir (tablets, cream), the Acyclovir Sandoz (tablets, cream), the Acyclovir Acre (tablets, ointment), Atsiklovir-Akrikhin (tablets, ointment), Atsiklostad (cream), Vivoraks (cream), Viroleks (cream, lyophilisate, an oculentum, tablets), Medical OVIR (lyophilisate), Atsivir (cream), Gerpetad (cream), Provirsan (tablets), Zovirax of the Duo (cream).

Zdravzona

  • Zovirax cream of 5% 5 g
  • Zovirax 200 of mg No. 25 of a tablet
  • Zovirax gl.maz 3% 4,5g
  • Zovirax 250 of mg No. 5 fl.
  • Duo-Aktiv zovirax cream 2gglakso Vellk Opereyshens/glaksosmitklyay

Drugstore of IFC

  • Duo-Aktiv zovirax cream 2 of of a tube, Glaxo Wellcomevelikobritaniya
  • Zovirax por.d/inf fl 250 mg No. 5, Glaxosmithklineitaliya
  • Zovirax cream of 5% of a tube of 5 g, Glaxo Wellcomevelikobritaniya
  • Zovirax tbl 200 mg No. 25, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals S.Apolsha
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Apteka24

  • Zoviraksglaxo Wellcome Operations (Great Britain)
  • Zoviraksglaxo Wellcome (Spain)
  • Zovirax

Paniapteka

  • Zovirax inf. solution 250 of mg No. 5glakso Welkom
  • Zovirax inf. solution 250 of mg No. 5glakso Welkom

BIOSPHERE

  • Zovirax of 250 mg / 5 ml No. 5 por.d/in.
  • Zovirax of 200 mg No. 25 of table.
  • Zovirax of 5% 2 g cream in a tuba
  • Zovirax of 3% 4,5 g ointment glazn.
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Section: Dermatological Antiviral
in more detail

Education: Graduated from the Vitebsk state medical university majoring in "Surgery". At university headed Council of students' scientific society. Professional development in 2010 - in "Oncology" and in 2011 - in "A mammology, visual forms of oncology".

Experience: Work in an all-medical network 3 years the surgeon (The Vitebsk hospital of an emergency medical service, Lioznensky TsRB) and in combination the regional oncologist and the traumatologist. Work farm the representative within a year in the Rubicon company.

Provided 3 improvement suggestions on the subject "Optimization of an Antibioticotherapia depending on Species Composition of Microflora", 2 works took prizes in a republican competition review of student's scientific works (1 and 3 categories).
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